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For his breach of a community order, which was handed to him last year, he received an additional four months. In total, Palmer had seven previous convictions for 13 offences, the first of which was for indecent assault in The mother involved in the court case said: Townshend was placed on the sex offenders register for five years in after admitting he had accessed a website for child porn four years earlier.
It is no surprise therefore that in , Townshend was named in a list of the biggest private financial donors to the UK Labour Party and like many labour politicians joined the Young Communist League UK whilst still in college. In a interview he stated that in practice he was a capitalist rewarded well for his work but his ideals were communist. On several other occasions Townsend has identified himself to the press as a Communist.
It is ludicrous to believe that the perversion exhibited by such celebrities as Townshend is spontaneous. He is established and supported by the same Marxist regime that provides pornographic materials to primary schools and during the past 50 years Townshend has publicly flaunted his perversion.
Perhaps this sick society has finally achieved what the homosexual Michael Hanson desired when he founded the Paedophile Information Exchange PIE in making the rape of little children acceptable to mainstream. After all one has yet to hear a public outcry. Jewish Labour Paedophile councillor and Head teacher Malcolm Ford, 66, raped the youngster repeatedly over a period of three years, a court heard.
A former head teacher who raped a young girl has been jailed for 15 years. Malcolm Ford, 66, raped the youngster repeatedly over a period of three years, a court heard. Malcom Ford, who at the time of the offenses was head of the Heys Primary School in Ashton-under-Lyne, admitted four counts of rape on the child.
Prosecutors told how Malcolm Ford, who lived in Ashton, at the time, had begun by fondling the child. He later went on to rape her repeatedly. Malcolm Ford, now of Bell Street, Southport, told the jury the girl had lied about the rapes and exaggerated everything else, but they rejected his claims and found him guilty. The court heard he was in the teaching profession for 29 years, chair of the board of governors and a Labour party district councillor who represented Skelmersdale for West Lancashire.
Malcom Ford was banned from working with children for life and must sign the sex offenders register. Homosexual Labour party chairman of Stanley Town Council and former coach driver who lived in Carlisle has admitted raping a schoolboy. Peter McLaughlin, 61, entered his guilty pleas on the day that he was due to start a trial at Carlisle Crown Court over 15 similar allegations of abusing the boy.
Until today, he had denied any wrongdoing, but he finally admitted twice sexualy molesting the boy when his victim was much younger. An earlier hearing had heard how McLaughlin committed the offences in the s when he lived in the Greystone Road area of Carlisle. The court heard that the defendant deliberately befriended his victim at a time when he worked as a driver for Redcrest Holidays, travelling all over Britain and Europe.
In court today, prosecutor Kim Whittlestone outlined how the allegations have already been scrutinised during two trials. After the first, the jury were unable to reach a verdict while in the most recent trial the illness of a juror led to the case being abandoned. The decision to accept the two guilty please offered was reached after detailed consultation with the victim, who otherwise would have faced the prospect of testifying for a third time. The period of time he will be on the register will be determined by the sentence that is ultimately imposed.
The judge also made the defendant subject to an indefinite Sexual Offences Prevention Order, which severely restricts his future contact with any child. Judge Hughes granted McLaughlin bail until the sentencing hearing on January 2 so that background reports can be prepared.
He added that he will be considering all sentencing options. In court today, Mr McLaughlin showed little emotion, speaking only to confirm his name and to enter his pleas. A tabloid headline perhaps for surely that would be the reaction of every concerned citizen. Yet catching the public unaware has become the nature of the Governmental game. The bulk sum of the Council Tax Bill is concentrated around the local council.
This is in terms of providing staffing and resources to child care facilities, schools and libraries. It is critical to note that these resources are sanctioned by the same Government of Labour Paedophile protector Mayor Joe Anderson. Nevertheless, most Council Tax bills will no doubt look similar to the one featured.
A true portrayal of a council tax bill however would follow the guide lines portrayed and would look something like the one below Introducing sex, homosexuality and the use of paedophilic teachers in the classroom to confused children purposely damaging their natural sexual identity. Using imported coloured nations to infuriate ethnic Britons with council provided support and advice to their communities through specialist teaching, bilingual assistance, training and achievement projects.
Of course if a council tax bill like this appeared in letter boxes the responses from the public SHOULD be much different. Would not they at least contest PAYING for the corruption of Europe for it would show in no uncertain terms that it was the Government who was at least the enemy in Britain.
Naturally all educators are not monsters that prey on children. Indeed one suspects that most are violently opposed to sexual perversion invading schools. However, passive resistance merely equates with cowardice and achieves nothing. With the reality clear that the Zionist Government itself is the root of corruption it can only be opposed by a unified public front.
Questions arose to why anybody would allow another person to use their computer, let alone to download Child Pornography on it. It is unsure how long the images had been getting downloaded but the questions the deliberate incompetant police never asked was why Paul Diggert did not delete the images, knowing that his Labour comrade would easily be able to see them. Freemason and Labour friend of Israel James Purnell was questioned about the Child rape images but was never to be charged although the images had been left on his computer.
Paul Diggett carried the can for Purnell when both men should have been charged with possesion of child pornogrophy. Warmer, of Hyde Road, Dereham, appeared at Norwich Crown Court for sentencing, after pleading guilty at an earlier hearing to two counts of outraging public decency and one count of sexual assault.
Prosecutor, Christopher Morgan said the first offence took place in Dereham on November 27 last year. The next two offences took place while he was on bail. A girl was walking to school from Castle Meadow on January As she got to the school gate she was aware that her skirt was being lifted up, so she tried to put it down.
The man lifted it up again and he kept hold of it. The last incident took place in Boots on February 2. Jonathan Morgans, for Warmer, said he had strong family support.
Police launch investigation into child rape allegations against the late homosexual Labour peer, Lord Tonypandy. The victim was aged just nine at the time but is now a man aged 55 — The case has also been referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission. South Wales Police say they are investigating sexual abuse allegations made against homosexual Labour Party peer Viscount Tonypandy involving the repeated rape of a young boy who was aged just nine years old.
Detectives have confirmed they are investigating the complaint made by a man, who is now aged The man has made a series of complaints against the politician, who he said had befriended his foster parents, dating back to the s and earlys. Police have also referred the matter to the Independent Police Complaints Commission because of a suspicious delay in launching their investigation after the initial allegation was made in April The man who has made the allegations is quoted today as saying: It has been with me all my life.
He said the assaults at the centre of the allegation were also carried out at various address in the city. He enjoyed greater prominence and popularity as the Speaker, a position he held between and He died in The victim, now living in Australia, said his foster parents were Labour Party supporters. He said he reported the crime to South Wales Police on several occasions, but the police had failed to do anything.
Assistant Chief Constable Nikki Holland said: This delay was unacceptable and we have referred the matter to the Independent Police Complaints Commission.
His homosexual friend, the late Labour Party MP Leo Abse, revealed in that the peer had been blackmailed by people threatening to expose his homosexual activities.
South Yorkshire Police confirmed a year-old Rotherham man had been arrested on Friday and had been released on bail. Frank Beck mysteriously died on 31 May , two and a half years after his imprisonment. The then year-old Labour party peer, Lord Longford, caused great controversy by sending flowers to the funeral. A police spokesman said: Two men from Corby, Northamptonshire, aged 69 and 63 are also being questioned in connection with the known offences.
The late MP, who represented Rochdale, was a regular visitor to Elm Guest House in Barnes, South West London, which is now at the centre of a police investigation into child rape and possible murder. The former Met police officer from Hounslow is accused of raping a boy and has been summoned to appear before Westminster Magistrates Court on May According to information from Scotland Yard released Friday April 25 , Mr Virdi will be answering the following charge that:.
But disturbing new evidence proves Harman to be a barefaced liar — and reveals how guilty she, her husband and their Labour Party colleague Patricia Hewitt really are. It ran inside a shocking page special edition of the magazine — the cover of which shows a picture of a young boy wearing only a small pair of shorts as he plays tennis. The appeal for new members and donations was published after a feature titled: Child porn, a heterosexual viewpoint. The journal, sent to PIE members, included news on paedophiles, articles on child porn and cartoons mocking assaults on children.
Documents from both groups also reveal how, in the first half of , the NCCL supported PIE when the vile group believed it had been slighted by a judge during his sentencing of a man convicted of blackmailing one of its members. With the information more recently and rather coyly splashed across the daily mail Harman has faced the press. Necessarily she goes to the paragon of taste and virtue the BBC were Jimmy Saville will fix the innocence of children forever.
Since the Saville scandal exploded the BBC has been revealed as a hotbed of child exploitation, rape and murder. This is the site of sickening abuse and child murder. The current child molestation investigation taking place in the BBC has a very familiar ring. Operation Arundel was a clean-up of the pop music scene and investigated allegations of sexual exploitation of teenagers.
In almost every case it was boys at teen discos and later from care homes. It is plain that with the conviction of so many Labour paedophiles and the BBC molestation scandal that there is a collaboration of politics and media in an attempt to keep the lid on a perversion sanctioned by government and threatening all the children of Europe. He befriended the family of a child whom he sent unhealthy messages to.
Following six hours of deliberations spread over two days, the jury of seven men and five women found John Murray, guilty of raping the child after hearing evidence from 17 witnesses. A longstanding member of the Labour Party, Murray was first elected to the City Council in the local elections and re-elected in Two years later he was elected Labour lord mayor. There were emotional scenes outside Court after the verdicts as the complainant and her parents and other family members hugged each other before thanking the investigating police for all they had done.
A Labour Party Leader for the Corby Council of England has been caught downloading images of children being raped by paedophiles on the internet. We aim to push the issue with every school and nursery about Labour party paedophile activities PIE by more than Ten previous Labour school governors, to keep them off school councils, organisations and other governing bodies. Labour Councillor and Boarding School teacher.
Homosexual Paedophile Cyril Smith molested and tortured children during his 16 years as a school teacher and Labour Councillor. Labour councillor Cyril Smith made the second child remove his pants so he could fondle and squeeze the boys testicles.
Cyril Smith was the local Labour councillor from to A Labour Party mayor and primary school teacher has been arrested for possessing child rape photographs. Graham Pearson, 54, was arrested at his Cherry Crescent home in Balladen, Rawtenstall, for having a stash of violent rape photographs of very young children. He was bailed to return to Rawtenstall police station while officers considered whether charges should be brought against him. But Mr Pearson, who is a Labour party council leader, was formally cautioned when he attended one of his council appointments.
A Lancashire Police spokesman said: Mr Pearson went missing from his home, and police issued an appeal for his return. His silver Chevrolet car was also said to be missing. But he was later discovered hiding in the Cumbria area. For four years from he served as a Lancashire county councillor for Rossendale East ward, but stood down prior to the elections.
He is also a governor at Staghills Nursery and Newchurch CE Primary and, while mayor, worked as a teacher at a primary school in Oldham. A spokeswoman for the Crown Prosecution Service CPS said two types of cautions can be handed out, either with or without conditions. This revelation provides startling credibility to the accusations levelled against the Establishment by Parents against paedophiles P. They believe that a massive paedophile ring operates via the Paedophile Information Exchange PIE through the halls of power.
The government and the BBC work hand in hand and this has been demonstrated through the school and media syllabi. A lightening turn around considering it was she who was complicit in wanting the age of consent lowered and incest decriminalised. The truth is Parents against Paedophiles P. P are sick to death that the media BBC , particularly since the Jimmy Savile case, insists on talking in past tense about crimes they know are taking place at this very moment and are determined that the establishment will not be allowed to mask over this scandal.
Meanwhile the mass is absorbed in X Factor, American Idol or some other brain dead garbage and the establishment continues to extort, rape and murder with seeming impunity. The recent London activity outside BBC shepherds Bush, part of a larger campaign that up to now has been spear headed by concerned parents- Parents against Paedophiles P. P and closely aligned to Labour25, I am assured will spiral into a Nationwide campaign.
Support for direct action has led to massive requests for information. Labour25 calls on all citizens at this time who are involved with anti-paedophile activity. The streets should ring with the voice of outrage that this rotten perverted core that calls itself the voice of the Nation is allowed to continue with its agenda. Labour Party super activist and Council Candidate Ian Rankin was jailed for having in his possession video material containing some of the vilest kinds of child sexual abuse.
Police say it was some of the worst paedophile material they had ever come across. Some of the children were raped while tied to posts and ceiling beams.
Most videos were of young children tied up and sodomised. The shock from Falkirk Sheriff Court jury was palpable as the details of the videos were revealed. The prosecution explained that in one of the 45 videos, a six year old child was tied up, beaten and raped.
After hearing the evidence some of the jury were reduced to tears. Samuel Gamlin, is said to have created sickening movies that involved the beating and tying up of children before they were subjected to horrific sexual acts. Gamlin pleaded guilty to the offences last month.
A Labour party councillor and her transvestite lover who subjected a minor to a three week rape ordeal has been jailed. Her transvestite boyfriend Ronald Lineker, 53, was also jailed for three years. Ex Deputy Labour Party Lord Mayor John Johnson has been hauled in to face charges of downloading the most sickening images on the internet involving the rape and violent abuse of small children.
Johnson was charged with downloading hundreds of images of child molestation. Some of the images depicted sadomasochistic rituals with children being tortured and raped by multiple adults. The prosecutor Mr Giles Beaumont said: Magistrate Michael Flanagan declined jurisdiction and called for the case to be heard before a crown court.
Labour Party Paedophile Councillors delibrately getting jobs in schools to be near children. Three times Labour Councill Candidate Richard Harris was arrested at his home in Union Street, Exeter and his computer removed for child protection officers to examin.
Harris was charged for offering the Juniors money to have sex with him. The paedophile known as Labour Councillor for Leicester Manish Sood who stood in the dock brings the Labour Party paedophiles to total a staggering 36 with Four others arrested and slipping through the court system.
But there was no slipping away from the judge at this court.. The Labour25 listed paedophile Manish Sood, spotted an advertisement by a school girl for a job in Gumtree, an online service with a part time work column.
Paedophile Manish Sood then decided to phone her and asked her for sex at a fixed price. The child got frightened and was so scared, she told no-one but her friend in her school. She told her friend what the paedophile Labour councillor was asking her to do for him.
He sent scores of filthy text messages and phone calls of an explicit nature. The victims friend got angry, so she rang Manish Sood and told him to leave her friend alone. Around phone calls and text messages by Manish Sood were received by the children offering sex for money.
The Judge gave him a Three year supervision order and banned from being near children unsupervised. Manish Sood admitted in court his fixation for little girls. Once again we see Labour party councillors applying for jobs to be near children, whether it be School teachers or school governors, to Barnardos and even the NSPCC and child care home workers for the vulnerable.
Ben Williams, although his home was raided and 8 computers were seized, found himself let off by a jury who could not come to a decision for the Second time. The judged added that he did not want to have another trial. Labour Councillor Ben Williams admitted that Joe Anderson had told him the day before his arrest and raid at his house, that a section 47 investigation was underway.
The link above confirms the truth… Joe Anderson is a Paedophile supporter… but who was it from King George V school that informed the Police, and who was the police officer who informed Joe Anderson? Who allowed a second trial without convicting Ben Williams? The smoke was there but the fire was well put out. He should be tried for obstructing the course of justice and his Mayoral title removed. Members of the Parents against paedophiles P. The angry parents were reacting to the setting up of a counter demonstration by miss McDonough and her union member boyfriend Phil Dickens who works just yards away in the Triad center also in Stanley Road Bootle.
The pair of hard line left wing anarchists organised a violent demonstration against the people of Liverpool who objected to the abuse of countless young children in Rochdale by 9 convicted paedophiles. He was spotted by a woman in McDonalds on Strand Road, Bootle Liverpool, after a woman recognised him when she and her husband were confronted by him for protesting against the paedophile gang outside Liverpool Crown Court.
They then contacted Parents Against Paedophiles and this website. Police arrived and the protesters were given a loud cheer and clap by the paeople of Strand Road Bootle. Scumbag Labour sent in a Muslim Paedophile supporting councillor named as Aftab Hussain to stand against little girls as young as 12 who were abused, raped and knocked out with class A drugs. The childrens attackers, Nine in all were be-littled by the Labour councillor, saying that the Nine paedophiles were of good character.
One child was raped by 20 paedophiles, she escaped in the early hours of the morning by jumping through a second floor window, after breaking it to escape. Injured, the child escaped and raised the alarm. Last year, Labour Rochdale Councillor Darren Pedley and his wife were arrested for downloading child porn images and distributing them on the internet, Darren Pedley was placed under house arrest along with his wife.
They scarpered from Rochdale down south and will remain there until the evening before their trial in October in Bolton. The dangers of having a Labour Lord Mayor in the establishment of your local area is deadly to children. Sam Chaudry, was the first Muslim Lord Mayor. When he won his local Lord Mayor Election for the Labour Party in Lancashire, just before he was about to put on the Mayoral robes, Police raided his home and arrested him. He was convicted and jailed for 12 years for Raping a child under 6 years old, Abuse of another child under 10 and the Rape of another child aged 8years old.
Nicholas Green Zionist woke up one morning to have police drag him from his bed in Westhoughton Lancashire. He was dragged off to the police station and charged with raping numerous children under the age of 10 years old. He was sentenced to 8 years. One day, A man went to see the Labour Lord. Mayor unkowing he was a paedophile, he took his daughter with him. The first Harrington issues were given a surface coating of tin, possibly to continue the fiction of a silver coinage but this was soon abandoned.
T his licensing practice continued into the reign of Charles I in From farthings were minted under a licence sold to Lord Maltravers.
At one point a small brass plug was added to make forgery more difficult. These plugged coins are known as the Rose farthings from their reverse design showing a Tudor rose. T he reign of Charles I included changes in design and a new gold denomination the triple unite. A series of gold coins was minted in and silver coins in The gold denominations consisted of the unite of 20 shillings marked XX , double-crown X and crown V , with the angel and half-angel.
Silver coins consisted of the crown and halfcrown, both showing the king on horseback, shilling value mark XII , sixpence VI , halfgroat II , penny and half-penny, all produced at the Tower Mint in London. When a new mint was opened in Aberystwyth, Wales in to exploit the output from Welsh silver mines, it produced shillings, sixpences, threepences, half-groats, pennies and half-pennies, plus groats, all bearing the three ostrich plumes emblem of the Prince of Wales as a mintmark.
W hen the Civil War began in , the Tower mint fell into the hands of Parliament who continued to issue coins in the name of Charles I bearing his portrait and using the same reverse designs. Other denominations from these two mints included the large silver pound, half-pound, crown and half-crown, with similar reverse and value marks of XX, X, V and 2. Production at Oxford continued until and included other denominations.
I n gold there was the unite, double-crown and crown; in silver, the crown, half-crown, shilling, sixpence, half-groat, penny and half-penny. The smaller denominations, two pence, penny and half-penny omitted the date and legends on the reverse. A silver shilling minted in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. Courtesy of A Collector. I n Oliver Cromwell, as Lord Protector, ordered the minting of coins bearing his portrait. Two gold denominations were minted, the smaller and most common being the broad, a forerunner of the guinea.
The other was a 50 shilling coin. Neither coin seems to have entered circulation and are regarded as patterns. Similarly the silver coins are also patterns. The denominations were the same as those of the Commonwealth with the addition of a groat and a threepence. Thereafter only machine-made milled coins were minted. In the gold Guinea worth 20s was introduced named as it was minted from gold imported from Guinea in West Africa. A half-guinea,two-guinea and five-guinea coin were also produced.
From James II continued these denominations. James II gold guinea A curious coin that was introduced by James II was the tin farthing and later the tin halfpenny following the accession of William and Mary in February This was to encourage the Cornish tin-mining industry.
These were the first bi-metallic English coins as each had a small copper plug to discourage forgery. Another unique feature of these coins is that there is an edge inscription including the date. James II tin farthing Courtesy of St James Auctions.
William and Mary tin halfpenny The tin coins were never a success, they corroded and were counterfeited, so copper farthings and halfpennies came back in It was made from brass metal particularly church bells and cannon and was minted in Dublin from June until he lost the Battle of the Boyne in July and fled to France.
Sadley for the coin holders, this never happened. The half-crown was marked as XXX thirty pence. James II half-crown, October Courtesy of Ye Olde Coin Co.
I n , under William III, there was a recoinage of the silver denominations which coincided with the withdrawal of the old hammered coins. Silver coins had been disappearing to the continent where the metal was worth more than the coin itself. Tax collectors were instructed to buy back hammered coinage by weight as so many had pieces clipped off them. Provincial mints were set up at Bristol, Chester, Exeter, Norwich and York until to produce the large quantities required.
After the Union of England and Scotland, the mint at Edinburgh operated briefly in conjunction with the mint in London. U nder George I in , the guinea was revalued to 21s and in in the reign of George III, the issue of guineas was stopped during the Napoleonic Wars and overstruck Spanish 8 real pieces Pieces of Eight were issued as an emergency measure and valued at 57 pence.
The Bank of England then produced gold Dollars 5s or 60p. One-third 84p and one-half p guineas continued to be issued until The silver coinage was also still being lost as it was melted down for bullion which was worth more. D uring the reign of George III production of silver coins became spasmodic and mostly confined to the smaller denominations.
Likewise the copper coins, in almost continuous production until , virtually ceased until after a brief issue and this led over the years to widespread forgery to make up the shortfall and then the introduction of a provincial token coinage.
The penny weighed 1oz. In the portrait and Britannia reverse were redesigned with a lighthouse and ship and from now the familiar bead edging was standard. In the reverse Britannia design was modified and the lighthouse and ship were quietly removed. From now on the actual value of silver in a silver coin was less than its face value. The London mint moved from the Tower of London to new premises at nearby Tower Hill and installed coining presses.
The coins in circulation now included the gold sovereign 20s , half-sovereign, two pounds and five pounds, the silver crown, half-crown, shilling and sixpence and the copper penny, half-penny and farthing. The introduction of the half-sovereign came at the same time.
The standard, 8 grammes of 22 carat gold for the sovereign, 4 grammes for the half, has been maintained ever since. Courtesy of Cruzis Coins. George underwent the first of many alterations in when his broken lance was replaced by a sword.
In the encircling Garter was removed and replaced by a reeded border. The date also changed sides and was moved from the obverse to the exergue of the reverse see half-sovereign below. The silver groat 4d reappeared briefly from to and the threepence was back in It shows a young Queen Victoria, with orb and sceptre, leading the British Lion.
It is a proof coin and only a small number were produced. A silver florin, worth 24d or one tenth of a pound, was introduced in ; the unheralded start of decimalisation.
The Coinage Act in defined coin weights and tolerances but not size or alloy proportions. In the reverse Britannia design of the bronze coins was modified and the lighthouse and ship which had been added were quietly removed. I n the Troy pound was replaced by the Avoirdupois pound by the Weights and Measures Act of that year.
The Avoirdupois pound had been around since around and was used by the international wool trade which was extremely important in Europe. It weighs grains barley and there are sixteen avoirdupois ounces to the pound. The Troy pound was officially abolished in January and the link between coinage and weight ended.
It was designed and engraved by George William de Saulles who had revised the design for the bronze penny in With Britannia standing, it has similarities to the British Trade Dollar design. Here a helmeted Britannia, with trident and shield, stands like a Roman goddess on the prow of a ancient galley. This was the forerunner of the Britannia gold commemorative design.
Edward VIIth Florin. T he crown disappeared in and the gold sovereign and half-sovereign were withdrawn from circulation in but production at the Royal Mint only stopped in Commonwealth mints around the world continued minting them for several years. George Vth Half-Sovereign. F rom now on no gold coins would be in circulation and ten shilling and various values of pound notes took over.
W hen George VI came to the throne in the Mint introduced new designs for the farthing wren , Halfpenny Golden Hind , silver threepence rose , brass threepence thrift plant. From the silver threepence was no longer minted and the brass twelve-sided coin took over. F rom , Elizabeth II oversaw further changes.
In , farthing production ended and they were withdrawn in Of these the half-penny was withdrawn in and the half-crown in On that day the United Kingdom changed from the centuries old tradition of using 12 pence to the shilling and 20 shillings to the pound to a new decimal new pence to the pound. In this it finally came into line with the rest of the world.
However at the same time the quality of the coin materials from now on was a shadow of their former glory. The increasing value of gold and silver had made these metals too expensive to use for coins. The 5p was made smaller and lighter in , the same fate befell the 10p in and the 50p in The material used for the 2p and 1p was changed to copper-plated mild steel which is magnetic from but in just one year, , they were produced in bronze as a final farewell.
The designs are excellent but the finish of the base metal can never match earlier coins and from the rich selection of crowns, nobles, angels and florins, we now have just pennies and pounds. Here is the first decimal set -. The shape, with its constant rolling diameter, means that it is readily acceptable in vending machines. S adly all gold and silver coins produced since by the Royal Mint are not definitives coins for circulation but commemoratives coins for collectors and bullion sold for their weight of precious metal The five shilling piece or crown had become a twenty five pence commemorative coin, struck in , , , and However in it was quietly decided to make a commemorative five pound coin of the same size and format as the old crown, and that it would continue to be known as a crown.
T he next great change may be the conversion of British Currency to the Euro. However with the sentimental attachment to the penny and the pound this may not happen before physical currency is superceded by electronic currency. What is more certain is that commemorative and bullion currency in gold and silver will continue for some time yet.
G old in the form of Sovereigns has been used as bullion since and Britannias began in Only the 1oz Britannia is usually used for bullion together with the gold sovereign which has 0.
Britannia silver was the mandatory composition for silver coins in England from to to discourage the melting as was done with sterling coins to create other silver objects. In the Royal Mint issued a silver proof Britannia coin to commemorate the th anniversary of the introduction of the Britannia Silver Hallmarking Standard. Sculptor Philip Nathan, who designed the gold Britannias introduced in was asked to prepare a design for the silver coin and this dynamic Britannia riding in her chariot and reminding us of Boudicca is the result.
In the design appeared on both the silver and gold Britannias. The latter links back rather neatly to the Macedonian stater which began this history and the story of English coins. This gold stater was minted by the Iceni who had a major fort at Thetford in Norfolk.
This is a Viking silver penny probably from the Cuerdale Hoard and dating around The thrymsa is very rare. This one was discovered near Newent in Gloucestershire. It dates to around and is now in the Gloucester City Museum. This beautiful English coin now held in the British Museum is a Mancus of Danish roots and is equivalent in value to 30 silver pennies, very valuable in its time.
It depicts Coenwulf, successor to Offa as King of Mercia from to
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