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After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message:. Not everything over there is fully functional yet, and the internal links still point to this blog, and will for the indefinite future. So all the old material will be left here for archival purposes, with comments turned off.

Too often they thought they were in the service of stability, but later found out that was not the case.

Norway is one of the smallest countries in the world, and one of the largest contributors to the Palestinian Authority PA and others, with annual donations of over Million NOK. Especially since the current left-wing Labor government took office in , the donations have exploded. What are these sums spent on? Recently the remuneration for suicide bombers was tripled.

Those who have carried out the worst attacks against innocent civilians receive the highest pay. Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center figures from show that Palestinians have conducted 25, terrorist attacks, suicide attacks leading to 1, dead Israelis and 7, wounded between and Fatah conducted acts of terrorism in alone, according to Terrorism Review. Many more foreign hostages than originally reported were taken by the Al Qaeda terrorists at the Amenas gas plant in Algeria.

The Algerian government says that out of were freed, and some sources say that 30 or more hostages were killed. The British government offered the Algerians manpower, equipment, and expert assistance to expedite the resolution of the crisis, but was refused. American, British, and French nationals are thought to be among the dead. In other news, the latest figures from Angola indicate that at least , Chinese nationals have migrated to the country.

The Angolan government says that work permits were issued for the Chinese to assist with development projects. To see the headlines and the articles, open the full news post. Thanks to Andy Bostom, C. Commenters are advised to leave their comments at this post rather than with the news articles so that they are more easily accessible.

Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here. We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible.

Further research and verification are left to the reader. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from Unzensuriert. The number of pupils with a first language other than German has doubled from to The doubling in the number of multilingual students is evident in virtually all provinces in Austria.

The Styrian province is the only outlier, where the number of children with a different native language has tripled from about 5, to 16, The nationwide statistics conceals the dramatic developments in Vienna, because German is hardly spoken in the primary schools of the federal capital. For a complete listing of previous enrichment news, see The Cultural Enrichment Archives. Scroll down for other posts that have appeared since Wednesday. Certain posts at Gates of Vienna, among them those by Takuan Seiyo, tend to attract the attention and comments of people who are preoccupied with the Jews.

I generally delete such comments without publishing them. Before I deleted it, I sent it to Takuan, just to show him what was coming in. He suggested that I go ahead and post it, followed by his response. Some interesting points, a lot of waffle and some errors.

Top class, modern historians now regard that figure as grotesquely disproportionate. It is one of the most successful internationsal businesses of all time.

You have the temerity to post this kind of Nazi apologist garbage in a comments thread of an article by a writer whose gentile grandparents had been murdered in a concentration camp and whose gentile mother spent two years in a labor-extermination camp, was a state witness in the post-war trial of its commandant, and relayed her wartime experiences to this writer directly.

Moreover, a writer who was born and grew up one hour by car from Auschwitz and three kilometers from the plant where the firm Hoch und Tiefbau AG had built the crematoria for that camp. In which, alone, 2. Moreover, you desecrate the memory of Witold Pilecki plus other Polish officer escapees from Auschwitz who produced written reports, e. I am omitting here reports by Jewish escapees, for example the Vrba-Wetzler report, as well as the fate of the Jewish part of my family during the war, so as to skirt the whole specious Joooos-tainted-it aspect of your comment.

The lowest for Auschwitz, for instance by the Polish historian Franciszek Piper , cites 1. The highest figure cited for Auschwitz is 4 million. However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.

For over 60 years, White mea-culpists have had a firm grip in all fields of cultural mind imprinting: Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e. K and discretionary e. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which — not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution.

Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West. Equality psychos are tearing down the most egalitarian society that ever existed except for initial communist experiments, before they turned bloody. American Jews, at the apex of the greatest fortune and philosemitic tolerance their long diaspora has ever bestowed on their kind, are busy supporting all the ideologies and policies that demolish their safe harbor and build up their Muslim, Black and Third World enemies.

Leftoid masochists and the Christian meek call for returning Hawaii to the Hawaiians and capitulating before a massive Mexican reconquista of one-third of America. The rightful Etruscan landowners are not bearing angry placards in front of the Vatican. The Japanese are not planning to relinquish Hokkaido to its original owners, the Ainu. The tall, white and fair-haired Chachapoyas of the Andean forest have, alas, no remnants left to sue the Incas for genocide in a Peruvian court of law.

However, even that great moral abyss of Western civilization — the Holocausts — stands out more in its industrialized and organizational features than it does either in the quality of its hatefulness or its relative or even absolute volumes. In relative numbers, in just one year, , the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda, killed off a total of one million, in a population of 7 million. Is it more humane to go by a stroke of a blunt machete than by a whiff of Zyklon B? The Khmer Rouge murdered at least 2 million Cambodians between and Is it more humane to die by wallops from a Cambodian pickaxe handle than by a bullet from a German Mauser?

Inscription on the back in German: There is a special horror attached to the Third Reich, because those were 20 th century Europeans, Christians, and in many ways the smartest, most civilized people on Earth. But the Holocausts do not prove that Whites are worse than other people, just that they are no better.

The history of the Third Reich also proves that with the right formula of economic blowup, misery and humiliation, sparked by charismatic evil, no people are immune to such horror, at no time.

Our Norwegian correspondent The Observer sends his translation of an article and interview with two respectable high-profile Muslim leaders in Oslo, who have strongly negative opinions about Jews and the worldwide Jewish conspiracy. A new trend seems to have developed in the Islamic community in Norway: It should also be pointed out that this is the same mosque that the Norwegian police apologized so profusely to last year for the fact that we have freedom of speech in Norway.

The translated article from Dagsavisen:. Many Norwegians have a negative view on Islam due to Jewish domination of the media. We are visiting Central Jamaat-e Ahl-e Sunnat, the mosque with the largest member base in Norway, to talk to its spiritual leader. The mosque was founded in and currently has more than 5, members. The Imam begins by explaining that all three heavenly religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are sacred to them.

Many people are unaware of this fact, says Sarwar. Both of them believe that the school visits confirms their views that Norwegians in general have an inaccurate impression of Islam and Muslims. People are ignorant because they get their information from the media, and the media only write negatively about Islam.

Only a handful of people were behind the movie about Mohammed in the U. So who was financing them, who was backing them? A big tip of the Bodissey pickelhaube to our commenter Jolie Rouge, who has provided us with a brand new acronym. Note the aggressor is not named other than by geographical location e. North Africa, Afghanistan and surprisingly the inclusion of Turkey.

I think JIM could have great utility for our enterprise: Who will be the first major Western politician not counting Geert Wilders to break the greatest cultural taboo of our time, and mess around with JIM? Yesterday a group of Al Qaeda terrorists assaulted a natural gas plant in Algeria and killed two foreigners while taking 41 other hostage.

Today Algerian special forces staged a helicopter raid on the plant, killing a number of the hostages — between six and 34, depending on whose figures you believe — in the process of taking out the terrorists. Among the foreign hostages were American, British, French, and Japanese nationals. In other news, Germany has begun repatriating its foreign gold reserves, which are stored in vaults in Paris, London, and the United States.

The following article tells a brief tale about immigrant-on-immigrant violence in Cologne, with Muslims of immigrant background dealing it out and Russian immigrants as victims. It shows the attempts by a Turk to protect a Russian family and being killed for his trouble. The translated article from Quotenqueen:.

Two criminal foreigners, free to terrorize their neighbors despite drug-related and violent crimes, killed a Turkish husband and father who tried to get them to behave. It happened in a sector of the city called Bickendorf — a district notorious for years for immigrant violence and bordering on the thoroughly Islamized Ehrenfeld.

But no one was killed. The Spanish government recently revoked his status as a political refugee in Spain, and he is due to be deported to Pakistan, where he will face the death penalty for blasphemy.

Augustus v. Gosset - SCC Cases (Lexum)

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Basic operation The assurance of conditional access perspicacious card technology is minimal by the security of the DVB sample in which it operates.

The type modus operandi of a legitimize erudite card is to decrypt an ECM Entitlement Authority Essence , which then provides the management designation, which allows the viewing of scrambled material. With card sharing, but, the smart reveal all and its asylum features are bypassed; software intercepts the decrypted put down poop and allows the user to appropriation it across a computer network. Filibuster decryption Postal card sharing has established itself as normal method of picaroon decryption.

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Rather than being unconnected and confused, these sets of imagery are consistent and systematic. But in sharp contrast to the impersonal nature of the wheel, which posits the individual as the lone author of his destinies, the Chinese model of rebirth draws on indigenous expectations of sociality and interpersonal relationships.

At the same time, they signal multifaceted changes in the conceptualization of the Buddhist cosmos in medieval China and its soteriological options. This conceptual framework provides an elegant resolution to the issues outlined above: Furthermore, the model's focus on Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings foregrounds the necessity of ritual interaction to gain access to this Sixth Path.

The cultural logic behind this interaction lays in ritual reciprocity lishang wanglai , as explained above. The revised paradigm also articulates a fundamental aspect of Chinese sociability: Images of the Sixth Path show the descent of a divine figure who will act as the practitioner's psychopomp in the generalized role of "the bodhisattva who leads" yinlu pusa ; they also show the departure of the deceased.

This leading and departing are standard features of medieval Buddhist mortuary rituals. By contrast, the canonical presentations of the Five or Six Paths and their visual illustration in the form of a wheel offer no room for such expressions.

Central to the success of the revised paradigm is the assimilation of indigenous social scripts and frames, functioning as it does within a complex ecology of localized cultural models. Some Remarks on Method. In his work on medieval European Christianity, Jacques Le GofF discusses the profound changes in the conceptualization of the afterlife that gave birth to the notion of purgatory.

More than a conceptual or doctrinal change, the genesis of purgatory and the reconfigured Christian cosmos reflected social transformations. Once the notion of purgatory was established, the increasing standardization of rituals such as prayer, penitential acts, vows, and merit-making enabled adherents to negotiate this moral topography. Sermons, exempla, and narratives of otherworldly journeys combined with images further expanded this model in graphic detail.

Across a range of evidence, Le GofF establishes a coherent model of the afterlife that embodies an inferential logic, the "logic of purgatory. Analogous work has been carried out in the Chinese context, where manuscripts and archaeological finds from the Late Warring States, Qin, and Han periods ca. Most centrally, the concerns of the living about the menacing dead came to render the tomb at once a household and cosmos.

The tomb itself is at once the household of the deceased, the netherworld, the immortal realm, and the extended cosmos. Like the purgatory of the medieval West, early Chinese tombs and the Mawangdui banner are examples of how cultures use cognitive models to structure understanding and experience — models that are instantiated through cultural practice and given material form for transmission and retention. They provide efficient mental strategies for individuals to gain access to complex sets of knowledge rapidly, simultaneously, and without sequential restraints, such as having to go through a checklist of semantic features.

Cognitive models constrain but do not determine thought and action. Each of its components or "slots" can integrate a wide variety of information, yet the model remains recognizable as a coherent gestalt,21 schematically compressing the most salient characteristics of an experience.

As their constituent parts are interrelated, invoking a portion of the composition provides access to the entirety of the model. In Le Goff's words: Medieval China witnessed a decisive shift in Buddhist cosmological schemata, their constituent parts, and the underlying inferential logic.

This article discusses the material and visual manifestations of this transformation, which remains invisible in traditional accounts based merely on canonical scriptures. Like the Christian model of purgatory, Qin and Han-period tombs, and the Mawangdui banner, the Buddhist images, objects, and documents discussed below instantiate cultural models that schematize and spatialize the hereafter and position the deceased within a larger framework of relationships and destinies.

These physical objects act as "material anchors," stabilizing complex conceptual frameworks and enabling their performative representation through ritual processes. Images, objects, and spaces thus integrate rich complexes of meaning and action in the location where they occur, and they can in turn provide a platform for further elaborations of meaning.

As it unfolds "in the wild" through material artifacts, cognition is thus distributed across domains exterior to the mind. The prioritization of material evidence is central to this new understanding of the cosmological model of medieval Chinese Buddhism.

It is my contention, moreover, that the neglect of such evidence in the past has led to distortions and misconceptions.

In retrospect, it is obvious that the canonical sources are inadequate to describe the operation of religious realities that are essentially extra-textual.

Meaning develops on the basis of frames and models, and these in turn define the categories they structure and the operative concepts within those categories. The lexical items that denote concepts and categories are dependent on these models. As Maurice Bloch writes,. There is therefore considerable evidence that learning is not just a matter of storing received knowledge, as most anthropologists implicitly assume when they equate cultural and individual representations, but that it is a matter of constructing apparatuses for the efficient handling and packing of specific domains of knowledge and practice.

Furthermore, evidence shows that once these apparatuses are constructed, the operations connected with these specific domains not only are non-linguistic but also must be non-linguistic if they are to be efficient. It follows that much of the knowledge which anthropologists study necessarily exists in people's heads in a non-linguistic form.

Change and the Wheel of Rebirth. Below I examine paintings, images on manuscripts, and votive inscriptions associated with the Paths of Rebirth in order to delineate the rise of the alternative cosmological paradigm sketched out above. The first, canonical, set of visual. However, in the following centuries, fundamental soteriological beliefs, practices, and agendas shifted to include a variety of salvific options oriented toward rebirth in a variety of Pure Lands.

Investigation of all these fails to provide any support for the standard model of either Five or Six Paths depending on the inclusion of Asuras. What appears instead is an entirely revised articulation of soteriological possibilities predicated on the concerns and patterns of Chinese ritual interaction. It shows a central deity with the Six Paths emanating from his body, each representing a possible birth; proceeding clockwise from top left, we see devas, animals, hell, men, asuras, and hungry ghosts.

Of particular interest is the figure in the upper left corner Fig. Its appearance and style are common among most of the so-called "deva" figures accompanying. Ksitigarbha of the Six Paths. This identification of the figure is supported by the dedicatory text on the painting, which runs as follows:.

The maker of this painting is the disciple of pure faith, Kang Qingnu. He himself lives in the Burning House and he fears sinking in the Five Paths where fortune and misfortune are never constant.

His cherished aspiration is to be among those liberated. Even more, he is now wracked by illness and still has not recovered. He desires that the minor afflictions retreat rapidly from his body and that troubles leave his original form. With this charitable deed then [Ksitigarbha's] shakes his golden staff in Hell bringing forth lotus blossoms and his [wish-fulfilling] jewel illuminates the illusory paths even through to the Pure land.

Furthermore, he desires that his in-laws and his family rest in good health, and that his brothers and extended families be imbued with a portion of these blessings. Ink and colors on silk, London, British Museum Stein Painting What is doctrinally implicit in this donative inscription, and others like it, is illustrated explicitly in the image itself: Rather than a deva, it portrays a bodhisattva figure, and it indicates a path which leads to Buddhahood.

Nor is Stein Painting 19 an aberration or the small figure in Fig. Although he admits that this iconography is the norm in Dunhuang images, he nonetheless ascribes it to "confusion" on the part of Chinese Buddhists. In the final section Fig. This image is remarkable for the variety of karmic transformations it depicts,34 but on closer view it is obvious that it presents six paths, not five. Buddhahood now necessarily entails bodily transformation, just like any other karmic path; moreover, it becomes a transmigratory option decreed by the Ten Kings of the Dark Regions.

The Paths of Life and Death — and thus the cosmos itself — have been re-configured into immediate possibilities predicated on the Pure-Land goal of transformation of every devotee's body into the Buddha body. The illuminated manuscript S. Another example is Stein Painting 80 Fig. The Tenth King of Transformations. Ink on paper, 29 x cm. London, British Library S. Ink and colors on paper, London, British Library Stein painting Pigments on paper, 29 to Then 4 horse and two-humped camel Way of Animals.

In Stein Painting 80 and the illustrated manuscript S. Yet not all pictorial renditions display the complete set of the Six Paths; some, such as the manuscript P. The Buddha Path is not among them, but this is of little importance. Notably present, by contrast, is the Path of the Asuras — precisely the destiny that, following the canonical texts, one would expect to be absent when the paths number only five.

As in the images introduced above, the asura is rendered as a stylized four-armed figure. Illustrations, textual references, and the principal figures connected with Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings make clear that the Five Paths are nefarious, but not the Sixth. The names and roles of other netherworld officials also indicate that only the Five Paths were of concern in that sphere.

The "Records of Miraculous Retribution," for example, explicitly link the government of the living and the government of the dead, each having, among other similarities, the Six Ministries.

However, the Six Ministries of the netherworld are overseen by the Spirits of the Five Paths wudao shen. Even though the text begins by framing a moral cosmos in terms of Six Paths, the Sixth Path, strangely, is never discussed.

In all the materials mentioned, we may thus perceive a consistent textual discourse concerning the paths of rebirth predicated on the alternative cosmology of a set of Six Paths in which one path is differentiated from the other five; and this discourse came to dominate medieval Buddhism in China. The sets of images involving Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings with the Six Paths of Rebirth are intimately linked to the other dominant form of votive image in the medieval period: Understanding that both Six and Five Paths operate in the revised context of soteriological and Pure Land beliefs and practices is crucial for grasping the unity of the underlying cosmological scheme, in which the visual, textual, and ritual materials representing the afterlife are bonded together into a seamless whole.

The extended title of the Scripture of the Ten Kings, already cited above, makes explicit this perceptual and experiential gestalt, its entailments, and most importantly its goal: These deities are like vectors through which humans pass, eventually to be voided from the dukha world.

As the title indicates, the scripture and the ritual it encodes encourage these affinities to be cultivated even before death, i. A1 The spatio-temporal placement of these deities in the liturgy mirrors the bipolar nature of the cosmos itself: Their schematic arrangement, when understood in light of our revised conceptualization of the Six Paths, provides crucial insight into the unfolding of the soteriological process as part of a larger artistic and ritual program.

Pigments on hemp cloth, x 69 cm. Painting EO is neatly subdivided into two halves. The lower section features Ksitigarbha and his associated iconography as it had become standardized by the tenth century: The painting's upper section represents a Pure Land scene. Of particular interest, however, is the mid-center right-hand portion of the image Fig.

To the upper right rises a triumvirate of figures in the lotus position, each on its own cloud. The seated Buddha figure recalls the one in the above-mentioned illustrated manuscript of the Scripture of the Ten Kings S. Ksitigarbha in hell with paths of rebirth. Mural painting on the east wall of Cave 33 at Yulin, Anxi Gansu.

From Anxi Yulin ku, pi. Ksitigarbha in hell; note black-haloed bodhisattva leading the deceased along a path. Ksitigarbha, the Ten Kings, and a bodhisattva who guides the souls to paradisiacal realms in a single visual frame establishes this painting as a summary image of reincarnational options and soteriological possibilities.

As such, it bears a striking resemblance to the Marquise of Dai's banner from Mawangdui, which also places the deceased in a schematic three-tiered overview of the cosmos, although its depiction does not imply a sense of narrative progression. The fact that the identity of both the Pure Land and the yinlu figure remains vague is not problematic but strategic: In the following, I elaborate on additional sets of imagery that present the specifics.

A number of images in different media depicting the Six Paths associated with both the Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings feature a Buddha or bodhisattva as psy- chopomp leading the deceased. Ksitigarbha is shown in the midst of hellish tortures as Paths of Rebirth stream from his mandorla. On the upper right stands a bodhisattva with paridhdna and halo, leading the deceased away from these horrors Fig.

The larger framework of the Paths of Rebirth and the variety of soteriological options are implied, though not depicted in detail. The situation is analogous to Le Goff's comment on the significance of purgatory as a relational construct: Although inherently connected with the Ten Kings and Ksitigarbha in the vast netherworld complex, Mulian is not typically associated with the cult or veneration of either. The occurrence of these motifs in a mural depicting the travails of Mulian demonstrates the dispersal of the new model of the cosmos containing a Path of Becoming a Buddha into an increasing variety of visual and textual narratives.

Guiding Bodhisattvas as the Sixth Path. These are individualized presentations of the Sixth Path. In this sense, the term yinlu indicates a generalized role of the bodhisattva as a psychopomp. Such a schematized soteriological model allows for core structures to recur across a large number of domains as organizational stratagems, inclusive of diverse perceptual and experiential modes and needs.

Such constrained flexibility is crucial; soteriological agenda pertain to the specifics of time and place and therefore require different inflections of their principal celestial divine agents. However, the role of a psychopomp remained a constant as configured in the interactional logic of human and social dynamics required to negotiate the moral topography. Line drawing of the Mulian narrative. Mural painting on the entrance corridor of Cave 19 at Yulin, Anxi Gansu.

Pigments on silk, x 53 cm. The Scripture of the Ten Kings, as well, lays out these schemata while leaving undetermined the specific agents who might occupy the roles. The sutra presents a generic script that leaves such details open.

Proper social interaction in the form of ritual encounters is crucial to attaining moral status in the next life. These divine figures are moral arbiters who judge actions that are, above all, filial actions.

The conceptual frame that structures these interactions is the ancestral cult. Indigenous Chinese Models and the Paths of Rebirth. Such models of social interaction and physio-moral dispositions are not the product of medieval Buddhism.

The division of the Paths of Rebirth into a set of five samsiric modes of existence and one opposed path of transcendent rebirth leading to paradisiacal realms strikingly mirrors developments in early religious Daoism. Stephen Bokenkamp has recently made the distinction between "generalized. Bokenkamp's description intimately resonates with the model of the Buddhist cosmos presented above.

What I characterize as 'specialized rebirth' lacks such a system for all beings. Instead, it is a sort of 'rebirth' into heavens or other future state [s] of being that is granted, usually by deities, as a special reward for select individuals who earn it. Internalist arguments are framed within a limited and often self-referential discourse.

Externalist arguments on the other hand, "are inherently associative or contrastive,"67 and are "arguments that function to set the ideas of a speaker or writer in opposition to certain prevailing societal values and presuppositions. The discourse on rebirth evidenced by the Dunhuang materials discussed above may, in other words, be understood as a Buddhist rejoinder to Daoist and indigenous ideas of soteriology. But we cannot exclude, at the present stage of our understanding, that, as stipulated by Bokenkamp, Shangqing Daoist models were indeed a response to a Buddhist cosmology that had already adapted itself to native Chinese ideas of ritual reciprocity and had revised the canonical understanding of the Paths of Rebirth to incorporated Pure Land beliefs and other soteriological options.

At a more basic level, it seems most fruitful to explain the similarities observed by insisting on the point that the medieval Chinese worldview was a coherent gestalt functioning within a larger ecology of conceptual frames, and that Buddhist and Daoist soteriological cosmologies both grew out of these shared fundamental cultural conceptions.

In this connection, I would also like to insist that what has been described in the. Why have scholars of Buddhism overlooked the complex and far-reaching reorganization of the medieval Buddhist cosmos, continuing to expound a model that on so many levels is inappropriate for the Chinese context? The answer has to do with the authority and legitimizing function of canonical scriptures and the slow pace of incorporating the material record into Buddhist studies.

Obviously, the widely accepted model based on legitimate canonical scriptures continued in medieval China to communicate some of the core ideas of Buddhism, such as rebirth, repeating cycles, and constancy within change, in terms of the metaphor of the wheel.

Yet it is highly curious that no one in the Chinese Buddhist tradition ever took the trouble to take issue systematically with the quite different ideas of death and rebirth as manifested in the evidence presented above, even though these divergent ideas were pervasively articulated throughout the medieval Chinese Buddhist sphere. Presumably, if they had been considered a challenge in the face of what was authoritative and acceptable, they would have been contested vociferously.

But they were not: There were certainly challenges among sectarian groups about which divine agents were more efficacious, or which destinations were more desirable — but those debates took for granted the validity of the non-canonical soteriological premises outlined above.

Rather, the cosmology presented above has remained uncontested for the simple reason that it was considered completely ordinary and was thoroughly integrated into the quotidian Buddhist experience. Furthermore, it coherently integrates diverse phenomena at the level of cognition across experiential domains. In summary, our analysis has revealed a coherent model of death and rebirth dominant in medieval Chinese Buddhism that differs from canonical explanations.

No single text, canonical or otherwise, captures the complexities and nuances of this model, which was instead elaborated through imagery, discourse, and ritual action. Sets of images and objects centered on Ksitigarbha, the Ten Kings, Pure Lands, and transitional figures such as yinlu bodhisattvas provided the dominant frames of reference for medieval Chinese Buddhist believers.

These materials articulate a dynamic gestalt that embraces a range of soteriological options available since about the eighth century. They are embedded in indigenous models of ritual interaction.

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