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I fully expect that as time goes by and more archaeology becomes available, information will be added. It only took me 5 minutes on our sketch remote mountain connection. For this reason, I have created subsection links for easier navigation. I have finally converted this book to a PDF format so that this book is available for free download, retaining its formatting and foreign language fonts.

I would like to thank my daughters, Leviyah and Genevieve, for their support, both encouragment and financial so that I could work on this study full time.

I would also like to thank the Bozeman Public Library, especially Mary Ann Childs, who handled well over a hundred of my interlibrary loans during these two years. For those of you that would like to donate to this research and further research to be posted, please click the donate button below and thank you. Proto-Indo-Europeans and the Patriarchy. From Clan Mother To Goddess. Seal of God — Mark of the Beast. Map of Patron Deity City Names. This study incorporates many textual elements that need their own introduction because of all the languages presented.

For the Hebrew, I use a Hebrew font that you will not be able to view without a download, unless you happen to have the font from another program. If you should see odd letters strung together where a name or word is being explained, you probably need the font.

I use this font when quoting portions of the Tanak [Hebrew Bible], to avoid translator emphasis that capitalizing puts a slant on. This font is also on the font page for download.

So if you are seeing quoted text in all lower case, you need this font as well. The Greek font is the Windows supplied font called symbol, but in case you do not have it, that is also on the download page.

As to the variations in spelling — there are many different groups within Hebrew. The Ashkenaz, predominately originating from north and eastern Europe, use a different pronunciation than the Sephardic Jews, which originated in Spain. For example the word shabbath [shiyn, beth, thau] can be written in the English as shabbath, sabbath, shabbat, sabbat, etc Add to that the fact that the Hebrew language was a new one in comparison to many of its neighbors archaeologically, and you add to the diversity of the English transliterations.

Also, scholars have not come to any standardization as to English transliteration and that adds to the amount of various spelling of the same word. While the Semitic letter Shiyn is traditionally an SH rendering in pronunciation, some scholars render it as an S with a diacritical mark caron or hacek over the S, indicating that it is supposed to be pronounced as SH.

This is not a Windows supplied character in their fonts. Vowels are also written and transliterated between the Semitic languages variously. That is why you will see some of the deities names with an A, E and I, when they are basically the same name. While not a foreign language note, it is pertinent to the study and is of the languages of scholars, which to some, may seem a language all itself.

Since the dating system of B. E is Before the Common Era, which relates to the time period of B. With that said, I have hoped to avoid as many questions as possible with this study, providing maps and such, but I know there will still be questions, so please do not hesitate to ask. It was originally going to list, for reference purposes, their names, associated cultural pantheon and passages of text that mentioned the deities, or were associated with them prior to the Hebrew text being written.

In many ways we are no different than the early Canaanites or surrounding nations, though the names we apply to our beliefs have been changed to protect the not so innocent.

No sooner had I typed them up and began researching the passages they occur in, did this study explode. This subject was far broader than I had expected. As I have mentioned in the other studies, what began as one study became three simultaneous studies, which are very interconnected — Perpetual Idolatry , Rule Over Us and Worthless Deities. The following portion of the study defines the worthless deities, arranges them by cultural pantheon, and includes pertinent associated scripture, as well as personal and city names that reveal their houses of worship.

Lastly, there is a list of reference works I researched, for those of you that would like to look into these matters more fully, hoping that no one takes my word for it. As a diligent researcher of the footnotes, I hate flipping around in a paper or book for the source, so I write as I would like to read. Practices that may have derived from something originally innocent, ended up becoming cultic and idolatrous. This is like the story of the newly wed husband, watching his wife cook for a family get together, he sees her take a ham, cut the end off, placing the rest in the large baking dish.

He asks her why she cut the end off and she says that it is what her mother always did. Curious, when the mother arrives, the son-in-law asks her why she cuts the end of the ham off and places the rest in the dish.

She answers, that is what her mother did and to ask her when she arrives. When the grandmother arrives, the son-in-law asks her and she states that the baking dish she had was too small for the whole ham, so she would cut the end off so that it would fit in her dish. Traditions and rituals are far too easy to begin.

In fact, it seems more difficult to avoid beginning them in the first place. Keep this in mind as we deal with the subjects involving the deities. Be aware that a number of deities cross boundaries of nations, which shifted themselves. Also, some deities merged at times, such as the blending of Athene, Anat, Astarte and Ishtar.

The Tanak, the bulk of which is a much later writing than any of the Ugaritic texts or other cultural texts, adds the additional problem of inconsistent blending of multiple elements, by the hands of various editors with their own agendas, into one element and then there is the very late dating vowel pointing for pronunciation of the Masoretic Scribes. This can be helpful in showing the different text sources and hands of the different schools of editing.

In the Tanak the lines blur between El and his son Baal. In some archaeological texts El is the father of Baal and in a smaller portion Dagon is. The debate of El and Baal, whether or not Baal supplanted El as the chief deity, rages in the scholarly circles. It is as though the post-exilic Jewish editors were having their own debate and blended the two in the Tanak, though a careful reading of the Ugaritic text clearly shows that Baal never supplanted El and could make no major decision without the approval of El, even to the building of his own palace.

There are also inscriptions that list Baal as a title of El, making them one and the same. These changes may have been due to various causes. The deity of the mountains when brought into the plains would gradually lose his mountainous character.

A storm-god transported into a rainless land would naturally have other attributes emphasized. What needs to be understood is the synchronization of deities, the migration of peoples taking their deities with them or adopting those of the locals, as well as a newer generation of deities taking on the characteristics of the older ones. Some of these patriarchal takeovers raped, married the ruling goddess, trying to make the takeover legitimate by a marriage, other times the deity simply changed genders to that of male.

As societies grew the necessity for more gods grew as well. It became necessary with the ever growing number of deities to give them a hierarchal order, creating a pantheon, mimicking the ever growing family, clans and tribal units they participated in. In speaking of villages growing and merging, becoming larger political units, J. Some gods and goddesses emerged as more powerful than others, but the worship of the less powerful continued on the age-old pattern.

An important factor in the identity of Israel , that many may not have noticed in the Tanak, is the verse in Yechezqel [Ezekiel] A verse in Yahusha [Joshua] These good relations are apparent in the book of Bereshiyth [Genesis] in relation to Abraham, the father of our faith, who is an Amoriy. He marries Sarah, who according to the verse in Yechezqel mentioned above, is a Chiththiy [Hittite].

At the point that Sarah dies, they are living in Hittite territory, of which Sarah is, if you believe the verse in Yechezqel.

Abraham secures land from the Hittites, who state that Abraham is a mighty prince among them, with a cave for burial. This becomes the family tomb, explained further on [Ber. At no point in history were all these Amoriy just wiped out or evacuated. Even archaeologically the evidence for this mass exodus from Egypt to Kenaan, with hoards of Israelites taking over land and creating settlements, did not occur.

There are times in the Tanak where Amoriy is used to represent all of Kenaan, such as Yahusha [Joshua] 7: Another verse in I Shmuel [Samuel] 7: This is not, in any way, to deny the reality, nor indeed the importance, of external influences on the culture, whether through trade, small-scale infiltration or aggressive invasion. Neither is it to ignore the socio-political constructs that have, at times, subsumed Canaanite identity under other names.

Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites and Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites. In these terms Israel itself has to be seen as a political construct, its culture derived as a sub-culture of the indigenous Canaanite population. This subject is too detailed to be covered here and is not the thrust of this study. There is also the matter that Yahwism borrowed many Canaanite motifs, which will be brought forth here. This is well after the last of the patriarchal waves, which will be discussed further on in this study.

What the map cannot show is all the territorial expansion and wars, like the Hittite sacking of Babel and expanding their territory that far east for a period, or the Amurru territory which butted up to the Hittites, extended west, encompassing Harran, Mari and over to Ashur [what became Assyria later], also making conquests of Babel and farther south, for a time.

Nations rose and fell or were assimilated. By devising allegories and myths and by inventing a kinship with cosmic phenomena, they established mysteries and introduced into them tremendous delusion, so that it is not easy for anyone to perceive what truth happened. He Sanchuniathon however, came upon the secret works procured from the sanctuaries, composed in the letters of the Ammoneans, which certainly were not familiar to everyone.

He pursued the study of all of them, and when he put an end to his work, having removed the original myth and the allegories, he accomplished his aim, until once again the priests who later came on the scene wished to conceal his accomplishment and to restore it to the domain of fable.

From that time the practice of mysteries arose, which had not yet reached the Greeks. Since they considered these men as benefactors and sources of many blessings, they worshipped them as gods even after they had passed on.

They built temples and also consecrated steles and staves in their name. The Phoenicians paid great honor to them and instituted magnificent feasts for them. They assigned names chosen especially from those of their kings to the cosmic elements and to some of the recognized deities. Among things of nature they acknowledged as gods only the sun, the moon, the other planets, the elements and their combinations, so that for them some gods were mortal and some immortal. They then dramatized them in various ways with additional literary ornaments, and intending to beguile with the delights of myths, they embellished them in all sorts of ways.

Our ears have for ages become habituated to and predisposed by their fictions. We preserve the received mythology as a sacred trust, as I said also at the beginning. Assisted by the force of time, it has rendered its hold inescapable, so that truth is regarded as drivel and the bastard tale as truth.

Gates of Vienna

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Groups of people across the globe have varying frequencies of polymorphic genes, which are genes with any of several differing nucleotide sequences. There is no such thing as a set of genes that belongs exclusively to one group and not to another. The clinal, gradually changing nature of geographic genetic difference is complicated further by the migration and mixing that human groups have engaged in since prehistory. Genetic studies have substantiated the absence of clear biological borders; thus the term "race" is rarely used in scientific terminology, either in biological anthropology and in human genetics.

Race has no genetic or biological basis. Human beings do not fit the zoological definition of race. Race is not a biological category that is politically charged. It is a political category that has been disguised as a biological one. There's no biological basis for race. And that is in the facts of biology, the facts of non-concordance, the facts of continuous variation, the recentness of our evolution, the way that we all commingle and come together, and how genes flow.

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This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Human " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Chimpanzee—human Gorilla—human Orangutan—human Gibbon—human. Human evolution Human prehistory. Theorists Books Fossils Evolutionary anthropology. Game drive system Buffalo jump. Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well. Astronomy sites lunar calendar Behavioral modernity Origin of language trepanning Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology music archaeology Prehistoric music Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use Prehistoric warfare Symbols symbolism.

Extant species of family Hominidae great apes. Human Homo sapiens Chimpanzee Pan spp. Bornean orangutan Pongo abelii Sumatran orangutan Pongo pygmaeus Tapanuli orangutan Pongo tapanuliensis Gibbon family: This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa defeated by Genoa in and subjugated by Florence in , and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice Of a population estimated at 94, before the Black Death of , [18] about 25, are said to have been supported by the city's wool industry: After their suppression, Florence came under the sway — of the Albizzi family, who became bitter rivals of the Medici.

In the 15th century, Florence was among the largest cities in Europe, considered rich and economically successful. Life was not idyllic for all residents though, among whom there were great disparities in wealth. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the gente nuova new people. The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their ascendancy. Cosimo was succeeded by his son Piero , who was, soon after, succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo in Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli.

Lorenzo was an accomplished poet and musician and brought composers and singers to Florence, including Alexander Agricola , Johannes Ghiselin , and Heinrich Isaac. By contemporary Florentines and since , he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" Lorenzo il Magnifico. But when he realised the size of the French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. With his exile in , the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government.

During this period, the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola had become prior of the San Marco monastery in He was famed for his penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread immorality and attachment to material riches.

He blamed the exile of the Medici as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused Pope Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public.

When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake on the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May In other words, Machiavelli was a political thinker, perhaps most renowned for his political handbook, titled The Prince , which is about ruling and the exercise of power.

Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the Florentine Histories , the history of the city. Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on 16 May Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the Medici in became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in Grand Dukes of Tuscany , ruling for two centuries. The extinction of the Medici dynasty and the accession in of Francis Stephen , duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria , led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown.

It became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the House of Bourbon-Parma in From to Florence was the capital of the Napoleonic client state Kingdom of Etruria.

Bourbon-Parma were deposed in December when Tuscany was annexed by France. The Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was restored on the throne of Tuscany at the Congress of Vienna but finally deposed in Tuscany became a region of the Kingdom of Italy in Florence replaced Turin as Italy's capital in and, in an effort to modernise the city, the old market in the Piazza del Mercato Vecchio and many medieval houses were pulled down and replaced by a more formal street plan with newer houses.

This development was unpopular and was prevented from continuing by the efforts of several British and American people living in the city. The country's second capital city was superseded by Rome six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible. After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population was to triple in the 20th, resulting from growth in tourism, trade, financial services and industry.

During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation — and was declared an open city in late July as troops of the British 8th Army closed in. In early August, the retreating Germans decided to demolish all the bridges along the Arno linking the district of Oltrarno to the rest of the city, making it difficult for troops of the 8th Army to cross.

However, at the last moment Charles Steinhauslin, at the time consulate of 26 countries in Florence, convinced the German general in Italy that the Ponte Vecchio was not to be destroyed due to its historical value.

The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city Americans about nine kilometres 5. Instead, an equally historic area of streets directly to the south of the bridge, including part of the Corridoio Vasariano , was destroyed using mines. Since then the bridges have been restored to their original forms using as many of the remaining materials as possible, but the buildings surrounding the Ponte Vecchio have been rebuilt in a style combining the old with modern design.

Shortly before leaving Florence, as they knew that they would soon have to retreat, the Germans executed many freedom fighters and political opponents publicly, in streets and squares including the Piazza Santo Spirito. Some 7, soldier-students were to pass through the University during its four one-month sessions see G.

In November , the Arno flooded parts of the centre, damaging many art treasures. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point. The Arno river, three other minor rivers Mugnone, Ema and Greve and some streams flow through it. Florence has a humid subtropical climate Cfa , tending to Mediterranean Csa.

As Florence lacks a prevailing wind, summer temperatures are higher than along the coast. Rainfall in summer is convectional , while relief rainfall dominates in the winter. Snow flurries happen almost every year, [23] but often result in no accumulation. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council Consiglio Comunale , which is composed of 36 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections.

The executive body is the City Committee Giunta Comunale , composed by 7 assessors , that is nominated and presieded over by a directly elected Mayor. The current mayor of Florence is Dario Nardella. The municipality of Florence is subdivided into five administrative Boroughs Quartieri. Each Borough is governed by a Council Consiglio and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor.

The urban organisation is governed by the Italian Constitution art. The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics environment, construction, public health, local markets and exercise the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous founding in order to finance local activities.

All of the five boroughs are governed by the Democratic Party. Florence is known as the "cradle of the Renaissance" la culla del Rinascimento for its monuments, churches, and buildings. The best-known site of Florence is the domed cathedral of the city, Santa Maria del Fiore , known as The Duomo , whose dome was built by Filippo Brunelleschi.

The nearby Campanile partly designed by Giotto and the Baptistery buildings are also highlights. The dome, years after its completion, is still the largest dome built in brick and mortar in the world.

At the heart of the city, in Piazza della Signoria , is Bartolomeo Ammannati 's Fountain of Neptune — , which is a masterpiece of marble sculpture at the terminus of a still functioning Roman aqueduct. The layout and structure of Florence in many ways harkens back to the Roman era, where it was designed as a garrison settlement.

The Palazzo Vecchio as well as the Duomo, or the city's Cathedral, are the two buildings which dominate Florence's skyline. The river Arno, which cuts through the old part of the city, is as much a character in Florentine history as many of the people who lived there.

Historically, the locals have had a love-hate relationship with the Arno — which alternated between nourishing the city with commerce, and destroying it by flood.

One of the bridges in particular stands out — the Ponte Vecchio Old Bridge , whose most striking feature is the multitude of shops built upon its edges, held up by stilts. The bridge also carries Vasari's elevated corridor linking the Uffizi to the Medici residence Palazzo Pitti. Although the original bridge was constructed by the Etruscans , the current bridge was rebuilt in the 14th century.

The church of San Lorenzo contains the Medici Chapel , the mausoleum of the Medici family —the most powerful family in Florence from the 15th to the 18th century. Nearby is the Uffizi Gallery, one of the finest art museums in the world — founded on a large bequest from the last member of the Medici family. The Uffizi is located at the corner of Piazza della Signoria , a site important for being the centre of Florence's civil life and government for centuries.

The Palazzo della Signoria facing it is still home of the municipal government. Many significant episodes in the history of art and political changes were staged here, such as:. The Loggia dei Lanzi in Piazza della Signoria is the location of a number of statues by other sculptors such as Donatello , Giambologna , Ammannati and Cellini , although some have been replaced with copies to preserve the originals. Florence contains several palaces and buildings from various eras. The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence and also an art museum.

This large Romanesque crenellated fortress-palace overlooks the Piazza della Signoria with its copy of Michelangelo's David statue as well as the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi. Originally called the Palazzo della Signoria , after the Signoria of Florence , the ruling body of the Republic of Florence , it was also given several other names: Palazzo del Popolo , Palazzo dei Priori , and Palazzo Ducale , in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its long history.

The building acquired its current name when the Medici duke's residence was moved across the Arno to the Palazzo Pitti. Palazzo Medici Riccardi , designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo il Vecchio , of the Medici family, is another major edifice, and was built between and It was well known for its stone masonry that includes rustication and ashlar.

Today it is the head office of the Metropolitan City of Florence and hosts museums and the Riccardiana Library. The Palazzo Strozzi , an example of civil architecture with its rusticated stone, was inspired by the Palazzo Medici , but with more harmonious proportions. Today the palace is used for international expositions like the annual antique show founded as the Biennale dell'Antiquariato in , fashion shows and other cultural and artistic events.

Here also is the seat of the Istituto Nazionale del Rinascimento and the noted Gabinetto Vieusseux , with the library and reading room. There are several other notable places, including the Palazzo Rucellai , designed by Leon Battista Alberti between and and executed, at least in part, by Bernardo Rossellino ; the Palazzo Davanzati , which houses the museum of the Old Florentine House; the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali , designed in the Neo-Renaissance style in ; the Palazzo Spini Feroni , in Piazza Santa Trinita , a historic 13th-century private palace, owned since the s by shoe-designer Salvatore Ferragamo ; as well as various others, including the Palazzo Borghese, the Palazzo di Bianca Cappello, the Palazzo Antinori , and the Royal building of Santa Maria Novella.

Florence contains numerous museums and art galleries where some of the world's most important works of art are held. The city is one of the best preserved Renaissance centres of art and architecture in the world and has a high concentration of art, architecture and culture. The gallery is articulated in many halls, catalogued by schools and chronological order.

Engendered by the Medici family's artistic collections through the centuries, it houses works of art by various painters and artists. The Galleria dell'Accademia houses a Michelangelo collection, including the David. It has a collection of Russian icons and works by various artists and painters. Other museums and galleries include the Bargello , which concentrates on sculpture works by artists including Donatello, Giambologna and Michelangelo ; the Palazzo Pitti, containing part of the Medici family's former private collection.

In addition to the Medici collection, the palace's galleries contain many Renaissance works, including several by Raphael and Titian , large collections of costumes, ceremonial carriages, silver, porcelain and a gallery of modern art dating from the 18th century. Adjoining the palace are the Boboli Gardens , elaborately landscaped and with numerous sculptures. There are several different churches and religious buildings in Florence. The cathedral is Santa Maria del Fiore.

The San Giovanni Baptistery located in front of the cathedral, is decorated by numerous artists, notably by Lorenzo Ghiberti with the Gates of Paradise. The city additionally contains the Orthodox Russian church of Nativity, and the Great Synagogue of Florence , built in the 19th century.

Florence contains various theatres and cinemas. The Odeon Cinema of the Palazzo dello Strozzino is one of the oldest cinemas in the city. Established from to [32] in a wing of the Palazzo dello Strozzino, it used to be called the Cinema Teatro Savoia Savoy Cinema-Theatre , yet was later called Odeon.

The Teatro della Pergola , located in the centre of the city on the eponymous street, is an opera house built in the 17th century. Another theatre is the Teatro Comunale or Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino , originally built as the open-air amphitheatre, the Politeama Fiorentino Vittorio Emanuele , which was inaugurated on 17 May with a production of Donizetti 's Lucia di Lammermoor and which seated 6, people.

Aside from such monuments, Florence contains numerous major squares piazze and streets. The Piazza Santa Croce is another; dominated by the Basilica of Santa Croce , it is a rectangular square in the centre of the city where the Calcio Fiorentino is played every year.

Furthermore, there is the Piazza Santa Trinita , a square near the Arno that mark the end of the Via de' Tornabuoni street. The centre additionally contains several streets. Such include the Via Camillo Cavour , one of the main roads of the northern area of the historic centre; the Via Ghibellina, one of central Florence's longest streets; the Via dei Calzaiuoli, one of the most central streets of the historic centre which links Piazza del Duomo to Piazza della Signoria , winding parallel to via Roma and Piazza della Repubblica ; the Via de' Tornabuoni , a luxurious street in the city centre that goes from Antinori square to ponte Santa Trinita , across Piazza Santa Trinita , characterised by the presence of fashion boutiques; the Viali di Circonvallazione , 6-lane boulevards surrounding the northern part of the historic centre; as well as others, such as Via Roma, Via degli Speziali, Via de' Cerretani, and the Viale dei Colli.

Florence also contains various parks and gardens. In the city was home to 50, people. Within Florence proper, Minors children aged 18 and less totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of Florence resident is 49 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Florence grew by 3. As of [update] , An estimated 6, Chinese live in the city.

Tourism is, by far, the most important of all industries and most of the Florentine economy relies on the money generated by international arrivals and students studying in the city. Manufacturing and commerce, however, still remain highly important. Florence is a major production and commercial centre in Italy, where the Florentine industrial complexes in the suburbs produce all sorts of goods, from furniture, rubber goods, chemicals, and food. Heavy industry and machinery also take their part in providing an income.

In Nuovo Pignone, numerous factories are still present, and small-to medium industrial businesses are dominant. The Florence-Prato-Pistoia industrial districts and areas were known as the 'Third Italy' in the s, due to the exports of high-quality goods and automobile especially the Vespa and the prosperity and productivity of the Florentine entrepreneurs.

Some of these industries even rivalled the traditional industrial districts in Emilia-Romagna and Veneto due to high profits and productivity. In the fourth quarter of , manufacturing increased by 2. Leading sectors included mechanical engineering, fashion, pharmaceutics, food and wine. During , permanent employment contracts increased by Tourism is the most significant industry in central Florence. From April to October, tourists outnumber local population. Tickets to the Uffizi and Accademia museums are regularly sold out and large groups regularly fill the basilicas of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella , both of which charge for entry.

Tickets for The Uffizi and Accademia can be purchased online prior to visiting. Studies by Euromonitor International have concluded that cultural and history-oriented tourism is generating significantly increased spending throughout Europe.

Florence is believed to have the greatest concentration of art in proportion to its size in the world. Despite still facing an uncertain future, the Raslans and their children — who are all now in school — continue to integrate into their new society. Children from slums use a mobile phone at St. For disadvantaged children, digital technology can provide new opportunities to learn, socialize and make their voices heard — or can be yet another dividing line, leaving millions of them behind.

Too little is being done to protect children from the perils of the digital world and to increase their access to safe online content. In Latin America and the Caribbean, homicide is the leading cause of death among adolescents. Every child has the right to protection from all forms of violence. Centre month-old Danilo in Guatemala City, who was born with a brain abnormality, gets the love, attention and support he needs — from his brothers pictured , parents, extended family and community — in a stimulating environment.

They are among 15, children receiving educational and other support at UNICEF learning centres in Rohingya refugee camps and makeshift settlements in the district. Over half of the Rohingya who fled Myanmar are children. District Health Communication Officer Bushra checks for ink marks on children in a high-risk transient population in Rawalpindi District to confirm that they have been immunized against polio.

This year, there have been just 12 cases of wild poliovirus in two countries 7 in Afghanistan and 5 in Pakistan — the lowest number of cases in history. As long as polio exists anywhere, it is a threat to children everywhere. An entire generation of Syrian children and youths are on the verge of being a lost generation due to conflict and displacement.

But they are not giving up on their dreams and aspirations. Worldwide, some 27 million children are out of school due to conflict. A child uprooted from home has the right to an education. Farimata Dicko, 13 months old, gets her hands washed before being fed a ready-to-use therapeutic food for severe acute malnutrition, at the Bellafarendi health centre in Timbuktu region. The acute malnutrition rate among children under 5 in Timbuktu has reached a critical level in conflict-affected areas of the region.

Global Handwashing Day, celebrated every year on 15 October, increases awareness and understanding about the importance of handwashing with soap. Migrant and refugee children and youth trying to reach Europe, particularly those traveling along the Central Mediterranean route, face appalling levels of abuse, exploitation, and practices which may amount to human trafficking.

Syrian refugee Malek Hawandi, 12, attends a remedial class for children who have been out of education at a school in the Bekaa Valley. Close to , Syrian refugee children are out of school in Lebanon.

Pervasive levels of poverty, protracted conflicts and complex humanitarian emergencies mean million children are missing out on school. More investment is required to address the reasons that keep vulnerable children out of school. Displaced children shelter at a school in Jojutla Municipality, Morelos State, hard hit during the recent 7.

With Government efforts focusing on reconstruction and a continued response to affected populations, UNICEF is calling for the needs and well-being of children in the country to be a key consideration in the wake of the massive destruction. Horriya, 12, carrying a jerrycan of water in Ain Issa camp is among , people displaced by unrelenting violence in Raqqa Governorate.

As World Water Week gets under way, more than million people in countries ravaged by conflict or unrest lack basic drinking water. Since 25 August, more than , Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh to escape the violence in troubled Rakhine State. About 60 per cent of them are children. Many are sick and in need of immediate health care. Many also require other urgent help, including psychosocial support and protection.

And the unprecedented influx continues. People heading for a shelter use a makeshift raft to cross flood waters in Kurigram District following exceptionally heavy monsoon rains in the country. Over , people are now being housed in more than 1, shelters in flood-affected areas.

Since the start of the year, the humanitarian situation has deteriorated substantially in the country, which remains engulfed in conflict. Tens of millions of children and other civilians in conflicts today lack protection from attacks and need vital humanitarian assistance.

UNICEF works for every child in emergencies, no matter which party to a conflict controls the area where a child lives. Singh, known globally as Superwoman, will work with UNICEF to engage and empower children and young people to speak out about the challenges they face. More than 1 million people have been forced from their homes by violent conflict in the Greater Kasai region, and at least , children have been displaced in the region.

Unless widespread violence in the volatile region comes to an end, the future of an entire generation of children is at risk in the escalating crisis. Volunteer Yohane Ngirongo right weighs five-month-old Abigail Shumba centre to monitor her growth during a monthly outreach session at the Chanthuntha community clinic in rural Kasungu District, where under-five mortality rates have been cut in half since Growth monitoring ensures that children suffering from malnutrition are treated as quickly as possible, one of a number of approaches Malawi has taken to reach the most vulnerable children.

A woman carrying her child through rubble and debris from destroyed buildings and vehicles flees the Old City for safe areas in conflict-affected Mosul. Three years in horrific and dangerous conditions and months of intense fighting have left children and families in Mosul struggling to cope.

Without immediate care, protection and crucial services, the lives and futures of nearly 27 million children in Iraq and other conflict-affected countries in the region are at risk. A boy walks on a sandbank near M'Bera refugee camp. The region is facing an unprecedented surge in migration, as people seek shelter from conflict, escape poverty or lose their livelihoods due to climate change.

Children uprooted are vulnerable to exploitation and violence. Across the globe, nearly World Refugee Day, held every year on 20 June, commemorates their strength, courage and resilience. Badiaa centre plays with Syrian and Italian friends outside her new home in Trento.

Badiaa and her family arrived from Lebanon through a humanitarian corridor that helped 93 Syrian refugees reach Italy safely in February Francis Katsigazi, with his 4-year-old granddaughter, Blessed, 1 of his 10 grandchildren, feeds a pig in a pen at their home, in Kabale District. Over 1, children suffering from acute watery diarrhoea have been reporting to health facilities every day. Health workers are racing to save children, who are the most vulnerable, as the number of suspected cholera cases soars in the war-ravaged country — where the weakened health system is overwhelmed by the scale of the cholera emergency.

Syrians Rosa Hamy and her children, living in a refugee camp near Thessaloniki, are among thousands of people in limbo in European transit countries, due to border closures. Women separated from their husbands, and their children, suffer from anxiety and depression as they wait to learn if they can continue on to reach their loved ones.

A girl gets water at a well in the Sin Tet Maw displacement camp in Rakhine State, where an estimated , internally displaced people now live in camps as a result of inter-communal conflict. Despite Government reform and reconciliation efforts, life remains a struggle for many children in the country. Without strengthened investments to protect all children and ensure their access to basic services, the lives and prospects of those missing out will remain on hold.

Standing at centre Naazma Begum, a rag picker, is a staunch vaccine advocate in her close-knit, urban slum community — where most mothers do not understand the long-term health benefits of immunization. Today, a growing number of unvaccinated children live in poor, densely populated urban communities, where immunization coverage is limited. In an attempt to cross into central Europe, Algerian boys scramble onto the underframe of a departing train, at a railway yard outside Thessaloniki.

Globally, the number of refugee and migrant children travelling alone has increased nearly five-fold since — a record high. At least , unaccompanied and separated children were recorded in some 80 countries in — When they cannot find opportunities to move legally, children resort to dangerous routes.

Three years after the world was outraged by the abduction of over schoolgirls in Chibok, millions of children and families continue to face violence, loss and hardship as a result of the insurgency. Fearing stigma and distrust in their communities, many children who have been associated with Boko Haram keep secret the horrors they endured. Everything Ben [the smuggler who took her] said — that we would be treated well, and that we would be safe, it was all wrong.

UNICEF is calling on governments to adopt a global protection system to keep refugee and migrant children safe from exploitation, abuse and death. Hermilinda Cabrera makes her way with her sons — Elias, 6-months, and Aldony, 9 — through the flood-ravaged area where her home once stood, in hard-hit Lima Region.

Many people are without water, shelter and other basics and are at risk of disease. Amina Dahir holds up an empty cooking pot as she crouches alongside her daughter in their makeshift home at a settlement near the town of Ainabo.

Some 22 million children have been left hungry, sick, displaced and out of school in Somalia, South Sudan, northeast Nigeria and Yemen as drought and armed conflict devastate lives.

UNICEF is working with partners in the four countries to respond to the famine threat and prevent it from spreading. A medical practitioner checks the nutrition status of a child suffering from severe acute malnutrition, in Bani Al-Harith, Sana'a. Close to half a million children suffer from severe acute malnutrition — a per cent increase since Families, unable to feed themselves and their children adequately, are eating much less, opting for less nutritious food or skipping meals. Over a quarter of a million children are already severely acutely malnourished in the country — where famine has been declared in some areas in About , South Sudanese are currently facing starvation, and an estimated 5.

Massive coastal erosion in Tuvalu has greatly increased the threat of cyclones and flood surges, stressing already limited and fragile water resources by contaminating fresh water supplies with salt water. Rising sea levels and the increased frequency of extreme weather events all threaten the water supplies children rely on, undermining safe sanitation and hygiene practices.

Third-grader Elizaveta, 9, attends school No. Thousands of children in eastern Ukraine have been affected by an upsurge in fighting, which has worsened the ongoing education crisis already affecting more than , children after nearly three years of conflict. Yet, after six years of war, many children are determined to pursue their hopes and aspirations. Saja now practices aerial flips every day in her tiny apartment and dreams of one day participating in the Special Olympics.

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Syrian infant Iliyas receives care from UNICEF-supported nurses at the Tabanovce refugee and migrant centre — where his family has been sheltering for the past 10 months. Many young refugee and migrant children remain stranded in the Balkans since the closure of borders in March Worldwide, 28 million children have been uprooted by conflict, driven from their homes by violence and terror.

All of them are in need of support. Many of these children have lost their families and homes and have missed out on years of education. A young migrant implores from a cell in a detention centre. Refugee and migrant children and women routinely experience sexual violence, exploitation, abuse and detention along the Central Mediterranean migration route from North Africa to Italy.

The route is one of the most dangerous — where vulnerable migrants and refugees seeking a better life are preyed on by smugglers and others. Over children died last year crossing the Mediterranean between Libya and Italy. Jomaa, 14, a Syrian refugee living in the Bekaa Valley, shows the dirt embedded under his fingernails from toiling 12 hours a day harvesting crops.

Jomaa has had to forgo his education in order to support his family. Orin, 4, playing at the seashore with his father, Marshall Mejia, in their hometown of Dangriga, is regularly exposed to stimulating environments and nurturing activities. What children experience in the earliest years of life shapes and defines their futures. Three months after the devastation caused by Hurricane Matthew, including to education facilities, most of the affected schools have reopened.

Around the world, millions of children have been scarred by violence. Millions more of them live in fear of physical, emotional and sexual violence. Fati right , 15, now in the Minawao camp for Nigerian refugees with her mother and her baby sister, had been abducted by Boko Haram insurgents, given to a man and forced to be his wife.

She was eventually freed by Cameroonian soldiers and reunited with her family. Physical and psychological abuse can mark children for life. Basel Alrashdan left , 11, making a huge snowball with other sixth graders at St. The Alrashdans were the first Syrian family to be resettled on P. Sabrin, 15, in the Baherka camp in Erbil Governorate, is a third-generation Palestinian refugee who was born in the country.

For Taha, her mother, Baherka is the sixth stop in a life of continual displacement. A woman and her two young children flee Mosul to escape the ongoing fighting.

Nearly 59, people — about 26, of whom are children — have been displaced as a result of intensified military operations that began a month ago to retake the city. Of increasing concern is the ability of families affected by the conflict to reach safety and gain access to humanitarian assistance in the country — where 10 million people are already in need of emergency aid.

Ahmed, 10, trying to keep warm, has been displaced from east Aleppo with his four siblings. The Syrian crisis continues to rob children of vital services they need to survive. Many children are at risk of pneumonia and other deadly diseases as temperatures drop. Sharon Namagembe, 10, breathes in harmful smoke at a wood-fueled cooking fire in her home, in Baka Village in Wakiso District.

Household and outdoor air pollution contribute to hundreds of thousands of child deaths every year, particularly from pneumonia; and children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels such as wood are at a significantly increased risk of developing pneumonia.

About half of childhood pneumonia deaths worldwide are related to air pollution. A girl looks out through a hole in a wall at a damaged school in Ramadi, in Anbar Governorate — which has been especially hard hit by conflict, violence and internal displacement.

About 1 million school-aged Iraqi children are internally displaced; 70 per cent of them have missed an entire year of education. And I came back in the months that followed, whenever we could get access. I was not sure what we would find this time. A boy inhales dangerous fumes from rubber tyres and other waste materials burning at a slaughterhouse in Bayelsa State.

Air pollution is linked directly to diseases that kill, and children are breathing in ultrafine, airborne pollutants — primarily from smoke and fumes — that endanger their health. In Africa, million children are breathing unsafe air.

More than 4 million Zimbabweans, including 1. Several struggling families are down to just one meal a day. In Matebeland South Province, families have resorted to eating shrivelled fruit to survive.

The re-emergence of polio after two years with no recorded cases in north-eastern Nigeria is of great concern in a region already in crisis. A massive emergency polio immunization campaign in October targeted more than 30 million children in 18 high-risk states across the country, including in Borno — where four cases of polio have been confirmed since August Hundreds of schools across the country have also been damaged or destroyed or are now serving as temporary shelter in the aftermath of the disaster — disrupting education and learning for more than , children.

United States of America, More than 50 million of them have been uprooted by war and poverty. Ahead of the first-ever UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants on 19 September, refugee and migrant children joined young people and other advocates at a candlelight vigil to urge world leaders to put children first in their response to the largest humanitarian displacement crisis since World War II.

An estimated , children live in areas most affected by Hurricane Matthew. Addis and his month-old son, Lato, from Eritrea, in a cell at the Alguaiha detention centre in the north-western coastal town of Garabulli, were apprehended while making the dangerous journey to reach Europe.

Children make up half of the population of refugees and migrants on the move. Helping them is a key shared responsibility, and includes finding alternatives to their detention — which can cause them severe and lasting harm. The innovative real-time tracking programme sends SMS text health alerts to mothers and pregnant women via mobile telephone, to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to improve the health of women and children living with HIV.

Thousands of children are fleeing Central America for the United States every month, to escape brutal gangs and stifling poverty. Many of them are unaccompanied. All of them risk being kidnapped, trafficked, raped or killed during the dangerous journey. Children and their families are bearing the brunt of the dangers and hardships in the renewed conflict in the country. Thousands of South Sudanese displaced by the recent heavy fighting urgently need life-saving assistance.

A boy working to connect a hose is among internally displaced people helping to get desperately needed water into a storage tank, during a vital UNICEF-supported delivery at a United Nations Protection of Civilians site in Juba, the capital. Two million people in Aleppo City lack access to safe drinking water as a result of escalating attacks and intense fighting. Two boys with emergency water shelter in a makeshift tent on a highway in western Aleppo City after the latest attacks.

Many affected families have exhausted their coping mechanisms such as skipping meals and selling off assets. In Eastern and Southern Africa — the worst hit regions — some Muhammed Abdel Latif, 17, sits next to a photograph of his brother, Muhanad, 10, killed in the suicide bombing of a stadium in Iskandariya.

A third of all Iraqi children need humanitarian aid while many families face deteriorating conditions following military operations in Fallujah and around Mosul. As humanitarian aid becomes accessible in more areas in the conflict-affected north-eastern region, the extent of the nutrition crisis affecting children is becoming even more apparent.

Of the , children suffering from severe acute malnutrition in Borno State this year, almost 1 in 5 will die if not reached with treatment. Batting fourth-grader Rakib Hosain Sabbi, 9, in Satkhira Sadar wants to at least complete the 10th grade so that he can get a good job.

He is being tutored after school so that he can succeed. The world has achieved impressive gains for children, including in education. But progress has not been even, or fair. Refugee and migrant children are taking dangerous routes and face heightened risk of abuse, exploitation and trafficking as they flee to Europe to escape persecution and hardship.

In , an estimated 75 million children in dire need of education support live in 35 countries affected by crises. Mohammed, 14, a Syrian refugee, works full-time in an industrial area in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to help support his family.

A significant number of children in the country are highly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, including child labour. He and his five siblings have been out of school since their family fled violence in their homeland three years ago.

Artem attends School 2 in Myronivskyi, in eastern Ukraine, just kilometres from the frontline. About , children in the conflict-affected region are in immediate need of education assistance. UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Ricky Martin, playing football with Syrian children in the Al-Hissa informal refugee settlement, calls for increased focus on protecting the future of millions of vulnerable children whose lives have been shaped by displacement, violence and a persistent lack of opportunities as a result of the Syrian conflict.

Children and women without shelter are among nearly 15, people displaced by fighting who are waiting to register at an emergency food distribution site in Unity State. We have to help them fight for those dreams. Purni Maya Gurung and her family live in a temporary shelter in Laprak Village in Gorkha District, epicentre of the massive 7. With the arrival of snow and the cold, hundreds of earthquake survivors — especially elderly people and young children sheltering in high-altitude areas — are now struggling to cope with the harsh winter weather adding to their hardships.

UNICEF has established a tented shelter home at the health facility — providing much-needed refuge, round-the-clock medical care, meals, sanitation facilities and other essential services for pregnant women, mothers and newborns in Gorkha District, epicentre of the devastating 7.

At least schools have been damaged or destroyed in the disaster. Although over 1, have managed to reopen, hundreds still face delays due to damage and many others are serving as shelter for people who have been displaced.

UNICEF is providing temporary classrooms — helping children to quickly return to school and to regain a sense of normality as the school year begins. Globally, at least 60 million refugee and migrant children and young people are on the move — in search of a safe place to call home and a more stable life. They are among the most vulnerable people on the planet. In this crisis for children, we all share the responsibility for preserving their childhood and their future.

Malak, 7, who made the perilous sea crossing from Turkey with her mother, plays at the Kara Tepe reception centre on the island of Lesbos. Anwar Hassan right , at his family's dilapidated makeshift dwelling with a friend, in the segregated Muhamasheen area of Mathbah in Sana'a, the capital.

The recent conflict in the country, and suspension of cash transfers to cover basic needs in vulnerable Muhamasheen households, poses a threat to their very survival. Despite tremendous gains in expanding immunization access in Africa — rapidly reducing child mortality — one child in five does not receive needed vaccines. The first-ever Ministerial Conference on Immunization in Africa convenes February in Ethiopia with a focus on ensuring access to life-saving vaccines for all on the continent.

Two decades of civil conflict in the country have led to countless child rights violations and left children increasingly vulnerable to violence, abuse and exploitation. The skills they learn will help them restart their lives once they are reintegrated into their communities. Left Esraa, 4, and her brother, Waleed, 3, near a shelter for internally displaced persons, in the city of Aleppo.

The harmful traditional practice scars girls for life. Of the million girls who have been subjected to FGM, 44 million of them are age 14 or younger. In the past year, UNICEF has facilitated the distribution of learning materials to more than , children across the country — where conflict, violence and displacement have devastated the education system.

Nearly one school in five is unusable due to the ongoing conflict, and thousands of those that are open are overburdened. Greece, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Girls peer through the window of a schoolhouse where a medical clinic has been set up, and a young child refugee stands with adults at a wire fence in Gevgelija.

Many of them not only lack safe places to live, but also to learn: Just 50 per cent of children in camps have access to schooling. A quarter of the appeal is devoted to education. A woman carries a child past tents at the refugee shelter at the Templehof Airfield in Berlin. The airfield was used during Berlin Airlift in and now provides temporary housing for 2, refugees. More than , refugee and migrant children have entered Germany this year, and the sheer scale of the crisis has strained capacity, leaving children at risk.

I want to be a bank manager so I can take care of my family, especially my grandma. Harsh winter weather is compounding the hardships for refugees and migrants on the move. As cold, rain and snow arrive across Europe, they face increasingly difficult conditions, including a heightened risk of dying at sea or on land, or becoming seriously ill from hypothermia or pneumonia.

Children are among those most at risk. Over half a billion children now live in extremely high flood occurrence zones. Ophelia Ghartay and her husband, community pastor John Ghartay, helped shelter and support a family of six orphans who survived Ebola. Ophelia says her husband tried three times to rent a home for the children, but was refused each time.

We believe these six survived because God has a plan for them. Decades of civil war have left thousands of children malnourished, uneducated and destitute. Beah left talks with a child who was formerly both a cook and a fighter and saw three of his friends killed in battle.

My father has grown grey hair … because he cannot see his brother. He is still in Syria. Munir Yousufi, 16, travelling alone from Afghanistan, gets help shaving, in a park in downtown Belgrade.

Munir lost partial use of the left side of his body when the Taliban destroyed his home while his family was in it. He has been stuck in Belgrade and living in a tent in the park since he ran out of the money his family collected to send him to safety.

One in every four asylum seekers in Europe so far this year has been a child. Phillip Baawuo holds his newborn son at the Bolatanga Regional Hospital, with his wife Gloria beside him. They are using Kangaroo care, an intervention that keeps premature babies warm, by holding them skin-to-skin, without the need for an incubator. This simple technique has been responsible for improving the survival rate of low-birthweight babies.

Hened Al Ahmad, a Syrian refugee in Rawda in Bekaa Valley, married a-year-and-a-half ago and is now a widow at age Her husband died six months after they wed in their homeland. Pregnant at the time, she later miscarried — due, she said, to the pain and fear she felt. In Lebanon, nearly one in four Syrian girls is estimated to have been married off by her parents before the age of 18 — forced into becoming an adult long before she was ready.

A Syrian couple is among a throng of refugees and migrants waiting to be registered as asylum seekers in Berlin. Increasing numbers of families and children, including from the Syrian Arab Republic, are seeking protection and refuge in the country. The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has forced millions to flee their homes. Many of them are risking additional hardships and dangers as they attempt to find haven outside their homeland. A woman refugee hugs a volunteer upon reaching shore on the island of Lesbos, in the North Aegean region.

She is among the nearly , refugees and migrants who have arrived in Europe by sea in Greece remains the largest single entry point by far for refugees and migrants crossing the dangerous Mediterranean Sea to find safe haven in Europe.

Since the start of the year, , people have entered the country by sea —— more than , of them in September alone. Habibur Rahman right , his two sons and his elderly mother are rebuilding their destroyed home in Kashaktan Village, northern Takhar Province, in the wake of the 7. Over 10, homes have been damaged or destroyed in the disaster.

With freezing temperatures setting in, families — many of whom are now living in the open — are racing to rebuild. Designed for UNICEF by Google, the installation brings to the heart of the United Nations General Assembly the voices of young people indicating the one thing they would like global leaders to change for children around the world.

Kinan Kadouni, laughs with the Syrian boy he is carrying ashore near the village of Skala Eressos, on the island of Lesbos. A refugee from Syria himself, he assists and welcomes refugees and migrants arriving by sea: I always try to welcome them with smiling face because I think that will make them comfortable. Issata Sow and her 4-month-old daughter lie beneath a mosquito net, a powerful defence against malaria, in Freetown.

Fifteen years ago, when world leaders agreed on the Millennium Development Goals, they pledged to halt and to begin to reverse the incidence of malaria by The world has met that goal; the rate of new infections declined by some 37 per cent, and malaria deaths fell by 60 per cent — gains that have saved 6. A boy sits beside a railroad track, on a rainy day in the town of Gevgelija, on the border with Greece.

He is among the children, women and men who have fled their homes amid the ongoing refugee and migrant crisis. Children make up a quarter of all asylum seekers in Europe. In the first half of , , children had claimed asylum in the European Union, an increase of 74 per cent since Left-right For Fahed, 18, and Fares, 15, practising parkour helps them cope with life in Gaza, where recovery is still ongoing after 51 days of conflict in July and August With its roots in military obstacle course training, parkour requires great skill as walls, buildings and other structures are used while performing quick manoeuvres.

Children and their families are among a huge influx of refugees and migrants in crisis who have entered the country with the goal of transiting to other countries in the European Union. Since July , their numbers have increased to approximately 2,— people per day. A woman breastfeeds her infant, in Mexico. This year, the Week aims to empower women to combine work with breastfeeding and raising their children.

This family of six, members of the Bedouin ethnic group, move from place to place in the desert, following access to water and food for their sheep. They use 8, litres of water daily — litres for cooking, drinking and washing clothes and dishes, and 7, litres for their herd.

When the devastating 7. She had also gone into labour and would give birth to her son that day. For millions of people around the globe, water, sanitation and hygiene conditions have improved. Still, in , million people are using unsafe drinking water. United Republic of Tanzania, Three years ago, Lina was denied admission to secondary school and felt her dreams were over.

She now receives vocational training. The flooding began in mid-July and, at its height, affected 20 million people, half of them children. The conflict in Yemen continues to worsen. By mid-June, 21 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance, including 9. Pabitrya Paudyal, 13, stands in front of door — all that remains of a school in Gorkha District that was destroyed during the 25 April earthquake.

On 31 May, nearly 14, children whose schools were destroyed or heavily damaged in the 25 April and 12 May earthquakes began having classes for the first time in five weeks, in temporary learning centres. A girl at school, in India. Over the past 15 years, collective efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals — ambitious objectives to be achieved by that would realize a brighter future for all — have yielded significant gains worldwide.

But the achievements made on a large scale conceal inequities that continue to threaten the most vulnerable children. The next 15 years provide an opportunity to ensure that the progress we make for children reaches every child.

Civil unrest has erupted in Burundi amid the approach of a tense presidential election, to be held in June. Over , Burundian refugees have fled to neighbouring countries, including Rwanda, where more than 26, of the refugees are staying, as of 18 May.

Baby Nirman was born in the period between the two recent earthquakes in Nepal. Their home was destroyed and their poultry farm damaged during the disaster. A girl attends class in Guinea. Despite remarkable progress in education, nearly 58 million children of primary school age and 63 million children and adolescents of lower secondary school age are out of school around the globe.

As the World Education Forum takes place this week, UNICEF calls for the equitable expansion of education, ensuring every child — regardless of gender, location, ability or socioeconomic status — is reached with the opportunities learning affords. In April , social mobilizers walked for miles on foot to reach remote villages in Lofa County with life-saving information on how to prevent the spread of Ebola. Such efforts have been critical to the victory Liberia achieved on 9 May , when the country was declared free of Ebola transmission.

Valentina Nikolaeva, part of a UNICEF-supported mobile team of volunteer psychologists, leads a group therapy session at the only operating kindergarten in the conflict-affected city of Debaltseve, Donetsk Oblast province.

They were scared when they heard loud noises. Search, rescue and relief operations continue in the aftermath of the massive 7. Over , houses were destroyed and more than 85, damaged, leaving 24, people internally displaced.

A woman stands outside her home, in the city of Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley. Following the devastating natural disaster, she was able to salvage some belongings, which are behind her, and then awaited going to a shelter. One-month-old Monyaguek Mayen is vaccinated against polio, in Unity State.

The lives of 1. Though more children than ever before are being protected with vaccination, which prevents up to 3 million child deaths each year, the poorest and most marginalized children are consistently missing out on life-saving immunizations despite being those who need them the most. UNICEF support has included airlifting nearly 92 tons of nutrition, health and water, sanitation and hygiene supplies that will reach people across the country.

Tens of thousands of children are in need of immediate assistance after Tropical Cyclone Pam ravaged the island nation. At least half of the population is estimated affected — about 60, of them are children. In the storm-damaged Mele neighbourhood in Port Vila, the capital, children and families no longer have access to safe water.

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