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Mattin, Adrian Boswood [right] , D. Brodbelt examined dogs diagnosed with mitral valve disease MVD including Their stated objective was to evaluate whether cardiac biomarkers and data obtained from routine history-taking and physical examinations were predictive of the likelihood of dying from MVD. Such routine data included such obvious ones as:.
Unsurprisingly, they found that all of these did, indeed, serve as predictors of a higher hazard of cardiac death. One surprise predictor of the likelihood of cardiac death was "Receiving a potent diuretic". Sometimes it is frustrating to try to objectively summarize studies by RVC cardiology researchers because they tend to either overlook or intentionally hide the obvious and refuse to provide breed-specific data about cavalier King Charles spaniels.
This is another one of those times. Boswood, studied the effect of pre-heart failure administration of pimobendan on dogs, Boswood bother to provide any breed-specific data or findings about cavaliers. When we asked him to do so, his response was, in short, "No".
Once again, here Dr. Boswood fails to provide data singling out the cavalier -- data he surely has -- even though there were six times more cavaliers in this study than any other breed. Not only that, but three of the seven organizations which assisted RVC in recruiting dogs were cavalier groups, the Cavalier Campaign, Cavalier Matters, and the Companion Cavalier club.
Surely their members expected some helpful information about their breed in the reported results. When you combine CKCSs with all other breeds in a study of this nature, you end up with a mess of unhelpful information for cavalier owners.
Italian researchers find serum iron decreases in MVD-affected dogs in heart failure stages. Brambilla studied the case records of 54 dogs, measuring their serum iron concentration SIC and iron-capacity factors. They did not find any significant differences in iron values between Stage B and Stage C dogs.
Thai study shows that moderate regular exercise can improve physical capacity in MVD-affected dogs in Stage B1. In an October article , a team of Thai veterinary researchers Saikaew Sutayatram [right] , Chollada Buranakarl, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Kumpanart Soontornvipart, Pakit Boonpala, Prapawadee Pirintr tested six Beagles with Stage B1 mitral valve disease mitral regurgitation but no heart enlargement , to determine the effects of "submaximal endurance training" by treadmill running and 6-minute walks, over a period of eight weeks.
It did not test dogs in Stage B2 heart enlarged or in Stage C in heart failure. The investigators report finding that the exercise:. They concluded that, "supervised or moderate regular exercise that is within the individual physical capacity should be performed in subclinical MMVD dogs and dogs with low routine physical activity, in order to preserve or improve physical capacity and quality of life.
Visser devises new landmark x-ray measurement to diagnose enlargement of the left atrium in MVD-affected dogs. In an October article , Univ. Johnson have introduced a new, highly accurate x-ray measurement of the left atrium LA to determine if MVD-affected dogs have LA enlargement. They call their measurement "vertebral left atrial size VLAS ". Technically, they describe the measurement as:. They compared these x-ray dimensions in dogs divided into four categories determined by echo-cardiographic scans: The investigators compared these x-ray measurements with echocardiographic measurements of the left atrium of each dog, using two standard echo images of the LA: AoSx and b long-axis LA: This appears to be a monumental invention for diagnosing MVD-affected dogs in Stage B2 heart enlargement.
Now that enlargement is the point at which the EPIC Study recommends commencing treatment with pimobendan, the detection of enlargement of the LA is an important landmark in the progression and medication of MVD. Using x-rays to measure the size of the heart and then compare that dimension to the same dog's vertebrae is nothing new.
His system called for two measurements of the entire heart -- one of the width short axis and the other of the length long axis see image at right -- then combining those two measurements and comparing them to the dog's vertebrae to arrive at a total number. Buchanan's initial intention was to use the VHS system for comparison purposes, starting with a "baseline" x-ray taken before any enlargement has been suspected, and then comparing that baseline to later x-rays to determine if the heart has begun to enlarge.
A problem with the VHS system is that neither the the short nor long axis measurement always took into account the fact that the LA, in the upper right corner of the x-rays, may be enlarging but not being included in those two measurements. For example, see the image at left here , showing that the LA, outlined in red, is mostly excluded from the two standard VHS dimensions.
Visser has figured out how to not only include the LA in the VHS system, but to focus solely upon it. Now, all of that praise aside, Dr. Visser has fallen into the same trap that several other recent cardiology researchers have, which is to blindly rely upon baseless, arbitrary minimum echocardiographic measurements to define LA enlargement. He assumes that the LA measurement of LA: Until published research shows that numerous dogs of every breed meet that criterion, that definition is nonsense.
Maybe he does this just to simplify things for argument purposes, but it is irresponsible to suggest that any dog of any breed with a left atrium-to-aortic root ratio of 1. The big problem with even suggesting this falsehood is that clinical vets feed off of it, rely upon it, and assume it is the gold standard for diagnosing enlargement. So, then they start administering pimobendan to the dog without ever actually making a professional, subjective effort to determine if, in fact, the dog's heart is even the least bit enlarged.
This form of malpractice has been happening worldwide, unfortunately, since the publication of the EPIC Study, truly the most irresponsibly-designed and carried-out research of pimobendan ever conducted. Visser's use of this phony definition of LA enlargement does not affect the quality of his research. None of the dogs actually involved in his study had a LA: AoSx less than 1. The median for his study's Stage B2 dogs was 2. Oddly, he also fails to point out that the most effective and beneficial use of his new VLAS method is to compare the measurements of the dog's baseline VLAS with its more recent one.
Baseline comparisons are the true gold standard, and every cavalier owner should be encouraged to obtain a set of the adult dog's chest x-rays before any MVD-murmur is detected. Only by comparing a baseline x-ray with a current x-ray can an accurate determination be made of LA enlargement.
Ivabradine reportedly improves heart rate variability in MVD-affected dogs with enlargement. They report finding that "the results revealed that chronic administration of ivabradine significantly decreased HR, BP, and RPP without adverse effects.
All indices of time- and frequency- domain of HRV at M3 were significantly increased when compared with baseline values. CoQ10 improves cardiac function in MVD-affected dogs in first canine study. They report finding that:. Cardiologists find that healthy cavaliers' mitral valves differ in shape from other breeds. In a September article , an international team of veterinary cardiologists led by Dr.
Abbott compared the shapes of the mitral valves of 35 young healthy cavalier King Charles spaniels with those of 41 healthy dogs of other breeds mixed, Beagle, and border collie , using three-dimensional echocardiography RT-3DTTE. They speculated that the shape of the CKCS's mitral valve leaflets would result in abnormal stresses that play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of MVD in dogs, and that morphologic alterations of the valve could represent factors that predispose to the development of the disease.
They conclude by stating that a longitudinal study is needed to test their hypothesis. UK cardiologists find MVD-affected cavaliers are more likely to develop pulmonary hypertension than other breeds. All dogs had enlarged hearts due to their MVD. Researchers devise a treatment plan for MVD-affected dogs in heart failure, based upon natriuretic peptide levels.
Twenty-six dogs were in the study, which included five cavalier King Charles spaniels -- the largest number of any breed -- with four examinations over a 21 day period. The dogs were divided into three groups, all three of which were in stable condition based upon routine treatments for CHF e.
They concluded that the "application of a prespecified treatment escalation algorithm in dogs with recent history and treatment of 1st time CHF secondary to MMVD results in a decrease in plasma NTproBNP concentrations", and that "Use of this treatment escalation algorithm allows effective targeting of treatment for CHF in dogs against an objective criterion. They primarily were testing the cough-suppression efficacy of alacepril over a period of four weeks.
They report finding that alacepril resolved or lessened the cough in 20 They observe that alacepril is among a sub-group of ACE-inhibitors including captopril and zofenopril which contain sulfhydryl, and that sulfhydryl may confer properties additional to ACE inhibition, which may explain the cough-suppressant qualities. LeBlanc [right] , S.
Scollan , they tested cardiologists, radiologists, and interns, to evaluate the accuracy of subjective x-ray determinations of left atrial enlargement LAE compared to echographic left atrium LA size assessments.
The subjective x-ray criteria included what are called "Roentgen signs" named after the discoverer of the x-ray. The two objective echo measurements were the left atrial-to-aortic root ratio LA: Ao and left atrial volume LAV. They state that their LA: Ao scale of enlargement was adapted species-wide from two previous studies this article and this article. Finally, they discourage the continued reliance upon LA: Ao measurements to determine enlargement.
This article likely will become an important landmark in the recognition that reliance upon the "left atrial-to-aortic ratio" LA: The authors state that the single linear measurement of the width of the atrium can misrepresent whether the atrium is enlarged at all, and that the aorta -- the denominator of the LA: Ao ratio -- is not stable throughout the cardiac cycle. Thus, this study joins a March article reaching the same conclusion about the lack of relative value of the LA: Ao in identification of mild LAE.
Nevertheless, even these investigators default to reliance upon the LA: Ao values to define enlargement of the left atrium. They conveniently defer to the mistakes of the past by stating: Ao scale was adapted from other veterinary studies. When researchers use a species-wide, arbitrary, low-ball cut off point to define left side heart enlargement in MVD-affected dogs, then their group of Stage B2 dogs necessarily includes Stage B1 dogs as well, and from that moment on, their Stage B2 study becomes worthless.
At best, it may tell the researchers that Stage B1 dogs can tolerate the drug, but it does nothing to support a finding that the drug is meaningful for dogs with enlarged hearts.
But, they redeem themselves near the end when they condemn the use of LA: Ao measurements at all. Once again, the true gold standard of accurately determining if the LA is enlarged or not is to have a baseline set of x-rays on hand to compare to a current set.
Of course, both sets need to have been taken by top notch operators, placing the dog in standard positions and timing the views at the proper point in the cardiac cycle. A second option is a baseline echo scan.
We expand on these domains below. When asked about the meaning of top and bottom, most participants were able to quickly offer two lists of dichotomous identity characteristics that they believed or had heard to be associated with each sexual position. For some participants, the terms top and bottom referred to highly gendered identities reflecting an essentialist, heterosexual construction of inserting and receiving during a given sexual encounter. As Jaime 1 Age 22, Equally likely states,.
However, gender was not the only assumed binary to be at play in the narratives. As Robert Age 20, Equally likely notes,. I just fuck people. When describing men who liked to top in relation to men who bottomed, the social designations of gender and sexual orientation were frequently used interchangeably.
Freddy Age 22, Top interweaves these two intersecting concepts of gender and orientation in his observation,. The bottoms are the softer ones, the feminine ones. Those are usually the bottoms. The tops, I find are more conservative in their ideals of what the role of the man should be. As a man who prefers to top, he distances himself from bottoms not through their sexual behaviors, but from a critical description of the open, counterculture ways that he believes men who bottom perform gender.
Along with the socialized gender attributes linked to sexual postitioning, YGM discussed how sexual positions influenced power relations within a given sexual experience. Many YGM regarded the primary distribution of power as one where tops were the dominant players, structuring the rules of a sexual encounter, and bottoms were passive players, relinquishing control of their sexual experiences. As Marc Age 22, Bottom states,. I actually do not voluntarily top.
Marc expresses how the presumed dominance of tops plays out in terms of sexual negotiation. In a few cases, the result of this power differential was the bottom forgoing sexual safety along with the sexual control. Matthew Age 22, Bottom states,. He definitely took control for the situation. Like, he had, like, a pretty active sex drive.
He always wanted to, and it was always very nice. So, it was very comfortable and it went—it felt like the way it ought to go, I guess. I mean, without using condoms, I guess, I would rather —in retrospect, I should have but I guess it just all, like, felt so good.
In his interview, Matthew expresses conflicted emotions towards forgoing condoms—on one hand, he enjoyed his sexual experience without condoms, but, on the other hand, he notes that use of a condom might have been beneficial, if not socially expected. Other narratives recognized that bottoms did have the ability to take control of a given sexual encounter, disrupting the hegemonic masculine idea that the act of penetration always mandates how sexual power is distributed.
In a few cases, control was described in terms of traditionally masculine personality traits being enacted at the same time as the participant assumed a receptive role during anal intercourse. For example, Peter Age 24, Equally likely states,. I tend to be a power bottom […] so when I bottom I tend to be more along the lines of, like, I tend to be the aggressor in it anyway.
When I say aggressor, you know what I mean, like the more dominant person. The language used by Peter makes clear that his preference for bottoming during anal sex is not an affront to his masculinity: In this snapshot, Peter portrays himself as the director of his sexual encounters, not in spite of, but in accordance with his position as a strong bottom.
Other YGM described bottoms as having power only in the ability to decide how much control to let go, with tops still directing the course of the sexual scenario. Winston Age 21, Top states,. Tell them to call me names. Winston characterizes this scenario of aggressive bottoming as a means that some hypermasculine men use to escape from the rigid gender performance that governs other realms of their lives.
His quote highlights that for many of the YGM, masculinity and submission were not always mutually exclusive during anal sex.
These portrayals of bottoms as maintaining their sexual agency stood in contrast to the predominant illustration of bottoms as uniformly feminine and passive. Through conversations around aggressive and power bottoms, YGM suggested that sexual positioning is complicated in ways not captured by the normative views of tops and bottoms.
While YGM acknowledged the ways in which they saw gender roles at work in their conceptions of tops and bottoms, they were also simultaneously critical of the idea that masculine or feminine characteristics could be attributed to a person simply by knowing their preferred sexual position.
This tension resulting from mapping gender roles onto sexual positions appeared throughout the transcripts, underscoring the hesitancy many of the participants felt towards being stereotyped into particular gender roles. Several of the participants shared that in their own lived experiences, friends and partners did not fit neatly into rigid categories.
Ryan Age 23, Bottom notes,. You know, flip the, flip the scenario. I—so, I tend not to associate any sort of mannerism or, or personalities with sexual interest. One of our […] best friends […] is an incredibly masculine farm boy. Other participants offered up tales of their own frustration of being placed into an ill-fitting category simply based on their physical characteristics. Caleb Age 22, Top states,. I find that I am shorter. And I find that everybody expects me to be a bottom, which is fine.
You can have your, you know, assumptions about me. And I am expected in the gay community to be a bottom. So, if I, who happen to be a top, want to date to someone… they always expect me to be a bottom. Why does it have to come down to this? These non-normative pairings of visible gender characteristics and sexual behavior appear over and over again in the participant interviews, often with YGM questioning their validity.
At times, the concern was not about being placed in the wrong identity category, but rather about the narrowness of the categories themselves. As Tim Age 22, Top reflects,. And then the other guy is supposed to be more the butch, the man. The exaggerated description of top and bottom expressed by Tim points to his discomfort with the identities assigned to tops and bottoms as not reflecting his sense of self, which is neither explicitly masculine nor feminine.
In such quotes, participants simultaneously revealed a shared understanding of the gendered expectations assigned to anal sex positions and an uncertainty about the adequacy of these labels to represent them, their friends, or their partners meaningfully. Discussions of the social identities associated with sexual positions continually framed men who were versatile, in that they enjoyed both performing sexually as a top and a bottom, as the ideal partner type.
Versatility appeared to provide an opportunity for YGM to deviate from the gendered and sexual stereotypes attributed to tops and bottoms. YGM spoke about versatility as an identity with characteristics more appealing than those associated with tops or bottoms by virtue of a lack of polarity.
They can, like, they can be dominated, but they can also step it up and not have to, you know, have someone take care of them. These attributes are situated between those discussed in relation to being a top or a bottom and, as outlined above, fully masculine or fully feminine. Leonard Age 19, Equally likely echoes this assumption of versatility as more evolved when he describes versatile men in terms of romantic partnerships:. I mean, what we do should be equal for us.
Additionally, Leonard broadens the discussion of gay sexuality to include sexual acts beyond anal sex. He references oral and manual stimulation as being enjoyable in part because they are reciprocal sexual experiences with his partner. Attributions regarding versatility contrasted sharply with polarized portraits of tops and bottoms. Ethan Age 24, Bottom explains his concerns about bottoms:. The traits that are linked with being a bottom in this quote e.
Ethan assumes bottoms to be not just submissive sexually, but also to require guidance and direction from a presumably top-identified man. Tops were similarly dismissed by the YGM in several of these interviews as being unfit romantic partners. As Sean Age 22, Top reflects,. Some people feel like because they are so, like, macho or whatever that they can have the right to, like, always be a top.
This conception of tops connects back to the ideas of masculine performance and domination participants commonly attributed to a preference for topping during anal sex. On the contrary, versatility was rarely marked as deviant. In most cases, it was highlighted as a prized quality. Several of the YGM revealed that for them to be versatile was to be free of the limited emotional capacity characteristic of tops and bottoms.
Thus, out of these discussions of the meaning of top and bottom with respect to both identity and behavior, the perfect man appears as the egalitarian, emotionally in touch versatile. YGM discussed the ways in which both assumptions and critiques around gender roles and sexual behaviors of partners influenced their sexual decision-making.
YGM expressed that within the context of a hookup, or casual sexual encounter, gender roles aided in decision-making; however within a romantic, long-term relationship, gender roles were not inherent to the negotiation of anal sex behaviors.
As James Age 22, Top states,. In this quote, James demonstrates the association between physical size, observable gender presentation, dominance, and sexual positioning. This equation of stature and dominance was echoed by Derek Age 21, Bottom , who confesses,. Basically if they are […] like older, physically dominant […] then I am the bottom. Similarly, age was identified as a useful tool in determining sexual positions during an anal sex encounter.
Jacob Age 24, Top notes,. So, it just kind of happens that way. They identify as a bottom. Here, older partners automatically top, possibly due to an assumption of more sexual experience and therefore more reason to be in the physically dominant role.
These findings implicate age as a marker of sexual power. Notably, some participants expressed their unhappiness with these rubrics for sexual behavior, as they resulted in the young men suppressing their own desires.
As Matthew Age 22, Bottom explains,. And it just, like, at the moment felt like, this is kind of the only way this can go. While the rote performance of sexual positions based on understandings of gender were often in the foreground of participant narratives discussing initial sexual encounters, such rules faded to the background when YGM discussed long-term, romantic partners.
For example, many YGM spoke of taking on an insertive or receptive position as a reciprocal decision to accommodate the desires of their partner. When asked what he preferred, Aiden Age 23, Equally likely shares,. I guess I more conform to what they enjoy.
Even those men who expressed a particular preference for either topping or bottoming during anal sex confirmed that the needs of a partner could often sway them away from their preferred position. These shifts marked the fluidity of topping or bottoming within a relationship context. We expand on the relevance of our study findings below. By focusing our attention on discussions of sexual positioning, we sought to understand how power and agency are enacted in these scenarios, and whether gender roles were influential in these negotiations.
Our findings suggest the presence of fluidity in the identities and sexuality of YGM, and that their relationship status casual v. We believe these discoveries to be useful for building developmentally appropriate HIV interventions that align with the current national HIV prevention strategies outlined by Grossman and colleagues We discuss the implications of our findings for HIV prevention.
Most YGM in our study had distinct ideas about whom and what constituted a top or bottom. When denoting identities, these terms described a constellation of social and emotional attributes linked to heteronormative gender roles discussed in further detail under question 3.
These terms also were also used to describe sexual behavior without any gendered characteristics: Importantly, without prompting from the interviewers in the majority of cases , the YGM in our sample also considered a third term, versatility, as relevant to the sexual positioning conversation. The saliency of versatility in the lives of many YGM in our sample suggested that they bucked restrictive, gender-based ideas of how gay men operate sexually.
These YGM painted gay sexuality as encompassing fluid behaviors and identities, not confined to the performance of rigid roles. YGM sampled in our study spanned the emerging adulthood years Arnett, , and several portrayed this period as a time to challenge societal expectations around the sexuality of gay men. Instances where our YGM critiqued conventional perceptions of gay sexuality through discussions of versatility or commentary on stereotypes align with other research on sexual minority youth, suggesting that some eschew normative conceptions of gay identity to craft their own narratives around sexual orientation Savin-Williams, Some YGM in our study engaged in this process of redefinition by deconstructing the stereotypes of top insertive and bottom receptive partners.
In some instances, this discussion of stereotypes included YGMs othering, or socially distancing themselves from, gendered caricatures of gay men. By acknowledging receptive intercourse as the more risky sexual position, public health practitioners may be tempted to design interventions specifically targeting men who bottom, and provide them with harm reduction techniques such as strategic positioning i.
Based on these findings, we argue that a more appropriate harm reduction strategy for youth would be to discuss HIV risk with regard to a variety of sexual positions and acknowledge saliency of partners within this equation. Additionally, we note that campaigns linking gendered and sexual behavior may risk alienating those YGM who are actively distancing themselves from gay stereotypes. We note that efforts which heavily emphasize gender roles or a particular sexual position may misrepresent the sexual dynamics of YGM within and across relationships, and overlook the needs of some men during this developmental period.
When YGM shared how they determined whether to top or bottom during anal sex, they described casual encounters and long-term relationships differently.
Within casual encounters, some YGM discussed the gender-based attributes associated with tops and bottoms as useful. This relational game determined whether the new partner was more or less likely to take on the top or bottom role in that moment.
Stereotypical understandings of gender proved a useful tool in establishing the rules of engagement for the short term, possibly helping these YGM avoid intensive negotiations with sexual partners that were intended for one-time sexual gratification. Conversely, using gender traits to negotiate the parameters of a sexual encounter with a romantic, long-term partner was not spoken of as consistently.
For those YGM inside of a romantic, long-term relationship, restrictive sexual roles appeared to run contrary to establishing sexual and emotional intimacy. National HIV prevention strategies have underscored the importance of focusing on couples as a prevention unit Grossman et al. In the context of our results, we believe these dyads would be well served by the incorporation of communication skills around negotiating pleasure in relation to safety with long-term, romantic partners.
The different contexts of relationship types have implications for the ways in which sexual behaviors get negotiated. In spaces where casual encounters are the norm e. In these arenas, an HIV intervention might benefit from incorporating gendered characteristics of tops and bottoms into their messaging, so as to better appeal to their target audience. Yet in relationship-focused spaces e.
Future research examining how YGM negotiate their sexual roles, while acknowledging how relationship dynamics may make sexual roles fluid, is warranted. When YGM in our sample spoke of tops and bottoms as social identities, some of images they provided were informed by normative ideas of gender.
These YGM presumably attributed these specific characteristics to men who preferred these positions because of conceptions of the power dynamics of anal sex between two men as analogous to those of heterosexual, vaginal sex: They frequently referenced the existence of a top identity and a bottom identity as beliefs grounded in stereotypes.
Yet their behavior, particularly within the context of hook ups, did not always reflect this social critique. While on the surface this discrepancy may appear to be a contradiction, some YGM may use stereotypes as a cognitive heuristic or cue when making decisions in a casual sexual encounter.
For example, our participants who referenced defaulting to a bottom position when encountering a sexual partner that was older or physically larger, no matter their usual sexual position. In this respect, YGM could be simultaneously skeptical of, but still influenced by, the presence of assumptions around gender roles and anal sex behaviors. By challenging a top identity as an ideal i. A preference for versatility shirked notions that real men must be dominant and control the power within a relationship.
Our findings echo work by Wilson and colleagues , who noted that YMSM sought a balance between traditionally defined masculine and feminine characteristics within their gender identities. Similarly, our participants noted a desire for a sexually flexible partner, reporting that they wanted someone who was comfortable with a constellation of appealing masculine and feminine traits.
These YGM in our sample appeared to be recalibrating the meaning of gender roles in relation to gay sexuality. Rejecting the terms top and bottom as rigid, prescriptive sexual identities, YGM frequently navigated their sexual behaviors based on their interpersonal relationships e. Research examining how ideas of gender are influencing the sexual lives of YMSM, particularly how performances of gender might shift across sexual identity categories e. Through such undertakings, public health professionals can better develop HIV interventions that resonate with a younger generation of MSM.
This study has a few notable limitations. First, our sample all identified as gay. We suspect that our use of Facebook as a recruitment device may have hindered our ability to sample bisexual or questioning men, as young men had to report being interested in men on their profiles in order to see our study advertisement.
Given this constraint, we were unable to explore the ways in which YMSM who identify their sexual orientations in other ways e. Second, YGM in this sample were not asked specifically about the role of gender in their sexual decision-making—this fact may leave room for interpreter bias in the beliefs and attitudes of these YGM around gender and sexuality; however, the theme of gender originated organically from the discussions of sexual positioning during anal sex.
The regularity of this theme across transcripts validated the link between sexual positioning and ideas of gender roles among this sample. Third, this study had limited discussion about how race or ethnicity may interact with ideas about gender during sexual negotiation among YGM. While other literature has discussed how race and gender may intersect within the sexual decision-making of gay and bisexual men Carballo-Dieguez et al.
A versatile bottom is one who prefers to bottom but who tops occasionally. An oral bottom alternatively described as being the "oral active" partner is the exclusively receptive partner in oral sex, providing the penetrative partner, or oral top alternatively described as being the "oral passive" partner , with unreciprocated fellatio and irrumatio.
Versatile refers to a person who enjoys both topping and bottoming, or being dominant and submissive, and may alternate between the two in sexual situations. Versatility is a concept of lifestyle. The reciprocal scenario, where both men take turns fucking each other, is often exercised as a celebration of equality. What sets this scenario apart from the others is the versatility of the men involved. Versatility is a unique and important feature of male anal sex.
Some men consider it liberating; Versatility to them is akin to speaking two different languages. It requires a special kind of playfulness, creativity, curiosity, and coordination.
According to some, living a versatile lifestyle implies a certain openness to new things and an opposition to labels , stereotypes and generalizations. Therefore, this concept differs from heterosexual relationships where sexual compatibility does not begin with guessing who will end up as top or bottom.
A Austrian study on gay pornography has shown that at least In this study, the performances of 5, actors were considered. The study also found that the actor with the larger penis was more likely to act as the top. Versatility is a common theme of erotic artist Tom of Finland.
For trans men who still have a vagina , topping and bottoming can also involve penile penetration. Top , bottom and versatile , with regard to sexual activity between males, refer specifically to the penetrative role, regardless of the physical positioning during sex.
When used in reference to heterosexual and lesbian sex , the terms top, bottom and versatile usually refer only to position and not to the penetrative role. No scientific study has ever been conducted as to what percentage of the gay and bisexual male population prefers any given role.
The popular assumption is that the majority prefer to bottom and that those who prefer to top are in the minority. A tally of 55, profiles on gay. The preferences seemed to vary by state, however. In Oregon, "versatile" profiles made up nearly half BDSM seems to have adopted and derived these terms as loan words from gay culture. In the hanky code , a person flagging the top or active role would wear the hanky in the left pocket, the bottom or passive role on the right.
Acts which were not divisible into distinct roles however, such as "69" or "anything" followed a pattern where one flagged interest by wearing the hanky on the right, uninterest by wearing it on the left, and preferences that did not relate to sexual mechanics, such as uniform fetishism or prostitution, followed a pattern where the seeker flagged on the left and the object of desire flagged on the right. The term side has been proposed by Huffington Post contributor Joe Kort  for gay men who are not interested in anal sex.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Underwood, Gay Men and anal eroticism: Sexuality portal LGBT portal. Gay men and anal eroticism: Retrieved 24 July Retrieved September 5, Hickson; Peter Weatherburn; Andrew J.
In human sexuality, top, bottom and versatile are sex positions during sexual activity, especially An oral bottom (alternatively described as being the "oral active" partner) is the exclusively receptive partner in oral sex, In self descriptions of men seeking sex with other men, they may refer to themselves as a versatile top or. Bottoms, I would first like to start by expressing our deep gratitude for your existence. Without you, anal sex would be impossible, and we would. Top scientists get to the bottom of gay male sex role preferences For example, tops also tend to be the more frequent insertive partner during oral their greater sexual sensation seeking, lower erotophobia (fear of sex), and.