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Together with the two neighbouring islands Phillip Island and Nepean Island it forms one of the Commonwealth of Australia 's external territories. The first settlers in Norfolk Island were East Polynesians but they were long gone when Great Britain settled it as part of its settlement of Australia.
The island served as a convict penal settlement from 6 March until 5 May , except for an year hiatus between 15 February and 6 June ,   when it lay abandoned. On 8 June , permanent civilian residence on the island began when it was settled from Pitcairn Island. The evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and is pictured on its flag. Native to the island, the pine is a key export for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree on mainland Australia, where two related species grow , and also worldwide.
They arrived in the thirteenth or fourteenth century, and survived for several generations before disappearing. They must have disappeared at least a few hundred years before Europeans arrived as the island was covered with forest by then.
He named it after Mary Howard, Duchess of Norfolk c. Sir John Call argued the advantages of Norfolk Island in that it was uninhabited and that New Zealand flax grew there. In the British government included Norfolk Island as an auxiliary settlement, as proposed by John Call, in its plan for colonisation of New South Wales. Practically all the hemp and flax required by the Royal Navy for cordage and sailcloth was imported from Russia.
They arrived on 6 March During the first year of the settlement, which was also called "Sydney" like its parent, more convicts and soldiers were sent to the island from New South Wales.
Robert Watson — , harbourmaster, arrived with the First Fleet as quartermaster of H. Sirius , and was still serving in that capacity when the ship was wrecked at Norfolk Island in As early as , Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales Francis Grose suggested its closure as a penal settlement, as it was too remote and difficult for shipping and too costly to maintain. A small party remained to slaughter stock and destroy all buildings, so that there would be no inducement for anyone, especially from other European powers, to visit and lay claim to the place.
From 15 February to 6 June the island was abandoned. In the British government instructed the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane , to occupy Norfolk Island as a place to send "the worst description of convicts". Its remoteness, previously seen as a disadvantage, was now viewed as an asset for the detention of recalcitrant male prisoners.
The convicts detained have long been assumed to be a hardcore of recidivists, or 'doubly-convicted capital respites' — that is, men transported to Australia who committed fresh colonial crimes for which they were sentenced to death, but were spared the gallows on condition of life at Norfolk Island. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of convicts sent to Norfolk Island had committed non-violent property offences, and the average length of detention there was three years.
The British government began to wind down the second penal settlement after , and the last convicts were removed to Tasmania in May The island was abandoned because transportation from the United Kingdom to Van Diemen's Land Tasmania had ceased in , to be replaced by penal servitude in the UK.
The next settlement began on 8 June , as the descendants of Tahitians and the HMS Bounty mutineers, including those of Fletcher Christian were resettled from the Pitcairn Islands , which had become too small for their growing population.
On 3 May , people had left Pitcairn Islands aboard the Morayshire. Although some families decided to return to Pitcairn in and , the island's population continued to grow. They accepted additional settlers, who often arrived with whaling fleets.
In , the headquarters of the Melanesian Mission of the Church of England was established on the island. In the Mission was relocated from Norfolk Island to the Solomon Islands to be closer to the focus of population.
Norfolk Island was the subject of several experiments in administration during the century. It began the nineteenth century as part of the Colony of New South Wales.
Recital 2 On 1 November Norfolk Island was separated from the Colony of Tasmania formerly Van Diemen's Land and constituted as a "distinct and separate Settlement, the affairs of which should until further Order in that behalf by Her Majesty be administered by a Governor to be for that purpose appointed".
Yet, the island was not made a part of New South Wales and remained separate. The Colony of New South Wales ceased to exist upon the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January , and from that date responsibility for the administration of Norfolk Island was vested in the Governor of the State of New South Wales. Recitals 7 and 8. In preparation for the handover, a proclamation by the Governor of New South Wales on 23 December in force when gazetted on 24 December repealed "all laws heretofore in force in Norfolk Island" and replaced them by re-enacting a list of such laws.
The island proved too remote to come under attack during the war and N Force left the island in February In , Norfolk Island was granted limited self-government by Australia, under which the island elected a government that ran most of the island's affairs.
In , a formal review process took place, in which the Australian government considered revising this model of government. The review was completed on 20 December , when it was decided that there would be no changes in the governance of Norfolk Island.
Financial problems and a reduction in tourism led to Norfolk Island's administration appealing to the Australian federal government for assistance in In return, the islanders were to pay income tax for the first time but would be eligible for greater welfare benefits.
Elections for a new Regional Council were held on 28 May , with the new council taking office on 1 July From that date, most Australian Commonwealth laws extend to Norfolk Island. This means that taxation, social security, immigration, customs and health arrangements apply on the same basis as in mainland Australia. Significant opposition to the reforms has arisen in the territory led by Norfolk Island People for Democracy Inc.
It has an area of The island's highest point is Mount Bates reaching metres 1, feet above sea level , located in the northwest quadrant of the island. The majority of the terrain is suitable for farming and other agricultural uses. The coastline of Norfolk Island consists, to varying degrees, of cliff faces. A downward slope exists towards Slaughter Bay and Emily Bay, the site of the original colonial settlement of Kingston. There are no safe harbour facilities on Norfolk Island, with loading jetties existing at Kingston and Cascade Bay.
All goods not domestically produced are brought in by ship, usually to Cascade Bay. Emily Bay, protected from the Pacific Ocean by a small coral reef, is the only safe area for recreational swimming, although surfing waves can be found at Anson and Ball Bays.
The climate is subtropical and mild, with little seasonal differentiation. The island is the eroded remnant of a basaltic volcano active around 2. It forms the highest point on the Norfolk Ridge , part of the submerged continent Zealandia.
The vegetation of Phillip Island was devastated due to the introduction during the penal era of pest animals such as pigs and rabbits, giving it a red-brown colour as viewed from Norfolk; however, pest control and remediation work by park staff has recently brought some improvement to the Phillip Island environment.
The major settlement on Norfolk Island is Burnt Pine , located predominantly along Taylors Road, where the shopping centre, post office, bottle shop, telephone exchange and community hall are located.
Settlement also exists over much of the island, consisting largely of widely separated homesteads. Government House , the official residence of the Administrator, is located on Quality Row in what was the penal settlement of Kingston. Other government buildings, including the court, Legislative Assembly and Administration, are also located there.
Kingston's role is largely a ceremonial one, however, with most of the economic impetus coming from Burnt Pine. Cfa , which is best characterised as mild. The absolute maximum recorded temperature is Other months receive significant amounts of precipitation as well. Norfolk Island has native plants; 51 of them are endemic. At least 18 of the endemic species are rare or threatened.
Before European colonisation, most of Norfolk Island was covered with subtropical rain forest, the canopy of which was made of Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island pine in exposed areas, and the palm Rhopalostylis baueri and tree ferns Cyathea brownii and C. The understory was thick with lianas and ferns covering the forest floor. This forest has been infested with several introduced plants.
The cliffs and steep slopes of Mount Pitt supported a community of shrubs, herbaceous plants , and climbers. A few tracts of cliff top and seashore vegetation have been preserved. The rest of the island has been cleared for pasture and housing.
Grazing and introduced weeds currently threaten the native flora, displacing it in some areas. In fact, there are more weed species than native species on Norfolk Island. As a relatively small and isolated oceanic island, Norfolk has few land birds but a high degree of endemicity among them. Many of the endemic species and subspecies have become extinct as a result of massive clearance of the island's native vegetation of subtropical rainforest for agriculture, hunting and persecution as agricultural pests.
The birds have also suffered from the introduction of mammals such as rats , cats, pigs and goats, as well as from introduced competitors such as common blackbirds and crimson rosellas.
Other endemic birds are the white-chested white-eye , which may be extinct, the Norfolk parakeet , the Norfolk gerygone , the slender-billed white-eye and endemic subspecies of the Pacific robin and golden whistler. The providence petrel was hunted to local extinction by the beginning of the 19th century, but has shown signs of returning to breed on Phillip Island. Other seabirds breeding there include the white-necked petrel , Kermadec petrel , wedge-tailed shearwater , Australasian gannet , red-tailed tropicbird and grey ternlet.
The sooty tern known locally as the whale bird has traditionally been subject to seasonal egg harvesting by Norfolk Islanders. Norfolk Island also has a botanical garden, which is home to a sizeable variety of plant species. It is very rare, and may already be extinct on the island.
The Norfolk swallowtail Papilio amynthor is a species of butterfly that is found on Norfolk Island and the Loyalty Islands. Cetaceans were historically abundant around the island as commercial hunts on the island was operating until Today, numbers of larger whales have disappeared, but even today many species such humpback whale , minke whale , sei whale , and dolphins can be observed close to shore, and scientific surveys have been conducted regularly.
Southern right whales were once regular migrants to Norfolk,  but were severely depleted by historical hunts, and further by recent illegal Soviet and Japanese whaling,  resulting in none or very few, if remnants still live, right whales in these regions along with Lord Howe Island.
Whale sharks can be encountered off the island, too. The figures showed an ageing population, with many people aged 20—34 having moved away from the island.
Most islanders are of either European -only mostly British or combined European- Tahitian ancestry, being descendants of the Bounty mutineers as well as more recent arrivals from Australia and New Zealand.
About half of the islanders can trace their roots back to Pitcairn Island. This common heritage has led to a limited number of surnames among the islanders — a limit constraining enough that the island's telephone directory also includes nicknames for many subscribers, such as Cane Toad, Dar Bizziebee, Lettuce Leaf, Goof, Paw Paw, Diddles, Rubber Duck, Carrots, and Tarzan.
Sixty-two percent of the islanders are Christians. After the death of the first chaplain Rev G. Nobbs in , a Methodist church was formed and in a Seventh-day Adventist congregation led by one of Nobbs' sons.
That investigators have uncovered sexual misconduct - at least some of it very serious - can hardly be doubted, given the charges. But just how grave and widespread the offending has been divides even those who know the island well.
Pitcairn law says it is While they travel and are aware of modern sexual mores, they have secretly continued a tradition of adultery and underage sex, he says. The grandmothers claim they had their turn and the next generation must endure it.
The men controlled everything and immorality on the island was very high," he says. Worse, he heard complaints of sex abuse with children as young as five, and says while he doesn't believe there was incest, "you'd come across uncles and aunts with nephews and nieces and that sort of thing".
The outsider says he told the islanders their behaviour was unacceptable. He and his family needed counselling after leaving the island and he wants to put Pitcairn behind him. By contrast, Herb Ford, the director of the Seventh Day Adventist-sponsored Pitcairn Island Study Centre in San Francisco, says he knows there's been underage sex on the island, "but if Pitcairn men are preying on young girls, then I'm missing a lot. I don't think it would have been denied by silence, by these people who have considered themselves Christian people".
Yet he wasn't surprised when the allegations were made. Before he left for Pitcairn, Ferret visited an elderly pastor who had served on the island. He warned Ferret that after a while he would see "a different level of morality". Trent Christian, son of the Pitcairn mayor and now living on Norfolk Island, says he grew up thinking the age of consent was 12 or 13 and knows young people were sexually active.
But he's surprised by accusations of adults abusing minors. In Auckland, Mary who did not wish to be identified says she left the island at age 13 and was unaware of friends having sex. Different countries have their own way of life. Pitcairn is a British territory and Mary believes the British must share the blame for allowing Pitcairn's sexual culture to continue.
There were mothers at the age of 12, 50 years ago. Alex, another transplanted Pitcairner who has been interviewed by police about the allegations, says most islanders recognise their way of life was wrong and must change. I've said that to police right from the word go.
But he's also angry, and it's an anger simmering throughout the Pitcairn community. They're angry because their children are called rapists and their mothers are suffering depression; that men have suffered stress-related illnesses, including heart disease; and that even the women and children may lose their island home if the able-bodied men needed to work the longboats are imprisoned.
Betty Christian, 59 and a sixth-generation Pitcairner, wrote from the island: We are like one family, and whatever decision is made, we are the ones who will suffer. Regardless of our differences and problems, none of our people want to see Pitcairn closed down and abandoned. The cruel fact is that Pitcairn's isolation, unique law, and diaspora have conspired against swift justice.
The case involves Pitcairn allegations with New Zealand lawyers mostly operating under English law. Little wonder that police named their investigation Operation Unique. British police visited the island twice, and interviewed complainants and accused worldwide. When they decided there was a case to be answered, Moore visited the island to judge whether a trial was in the public interest. Pitcairn law - with British law added where local ordinances are deficient - is untested.
There are no precedents, no appeal structures and no lawyers. Pitcairn public defender and Auckland barrister Paul Dacre, was the first person appointed to the Pitcairn bar, only last year. Despite New Zealand legislation in December clearing the way for the trial to be held in Auckland, under British jurisdiction, most islanders want any trial to be held on Pitcairn.
As Dacre says, New Zealanders would find it strange being tried in a foreign court, for a crime committed in their country, before a judge who had never been to New Zealand.
The final decision will be made by the governor, Richard Fell, "in accordance with the advice of the chief justice", New Zealand District Court judge Charles Blackie. Pitcairners are also angry because Britain, which froze development funds, has found money to renovate government buildings on the island for a possible trial.
A New Zealand contractor has added a three-cell "remand facility" to the police station. Pitcairn men, the people who may end up serving time inside, built it. The situation has soured relations between Pitcairners and England. Wolstenholme says complaints arose last year as the islanders' patience over the police investigation began to fray.
As of 1 July, the island will be subject to Australian immigration and border protection rules. Islanders will fall under the Medicare system and will be eligible for social benefits, including the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. There remains widespread resistance and uncertainty about falling under commonwealth governance, and the manager of Cumberland Resort and Spa, Rael Donde, is among those keen for the island to maintain autonomy.
Just look at Christmas Island. The proposal predicted an increase in revenue for tourism operators — including accommodation businesses housing asylum seekers, as well as fly-in-fly-out workers — and the local goods and services economy. Blucher, who was one of nine Save the Children workers on Nauru summarily sacked for what was later revealed to be unsubstantiated claims, said the proposal was a pragmatic idea conceived while she was still working with families and children in the offshore camp.
Blucher said she still maintained her view that every person in offshore camps should be brought immediately to Australia and have their claims processed by Australia. I know I had an amazing childhood and I really believed my small island home could give a welcoming community to people who were suffering so terribly in closed camps on Nauru.
However, there are concerns the government would renege on that part of the arrangement if the island agreed to the proposal. Troy Hamilton-Irvine is on the management committee of Norfolk Island People For Democracy, which is calling for an independent review of the process of bringing the island under Australian governance. Hamilton-Irvine said he would support the proposal for a refugee processing centre on the island only if the UN decided that the islanders should have the right to self-govern.
The processing centre would only be humanely run if operated by the islanders, he said. Norfolk Islanders respect human rights.
Fashion · Food · Recipes · Love & sex · Home & garden · Health & fitness · Family · Travel · Money However, while many residents want to maintain their autonomy, there Norfolk Island has been in a transition period since the federal “I am going to bring this proposal [for an offshore processing centre]. The descendants of the Bounty mutineers living on Pitcairn Island and a tropical, Eden-like Christian community, bought their postage Trent Christian, son of the Pitcairn mayor and now living on Norfolk Island, says he "I'm not saying underage sex doesn't go on, just like it goes on here," she says. Lust is a powerful thing, and some men will do just about anything in the sweet spot between "nice to meet you" and "sex." Closing the gap.