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The city of Detroit , the largest city in the state of Michigan , was settled in by French colonists. It is the first European settlement above tidewater in North America. But industrialization drove its becoming a world-class industrial powerhouse and the fourth-largest American city by , based on the auto industry. It held that standing through the midth century. Traders from Montreal and Quebec had to contend with the powerful Five Nations of the League of the Iroquois , who took control of the southern shores of Lakes Erie and Huron through the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, during which they conquered or pushed out lesser tribes.
The region grew initially based on the lucrative inland and Great Lakes connected fur trade , based on continuing relations with influential Native American chiefs and interpreters. The Crown's administration of New France offered free land to colonists to attract families to the region of Detroit. The population grew steadily, but more slowly than in English private venture-funded colonies.
The French had a smaller population base and attracted fewer relatives. It was subject to repeated attacks by British regular and colonial forces, strengthened by Indian allies.
Fort Detroit was surrendered to the British on November 29, , after the fall of Quebec. Control of the area, and all French territory east of the Mississippi River, was formally transferred to the United Kingdom by the Treaty of Paris after it defeated France in the Seven Years' War. The British counted 2, people in Detroit in , but the population had dropped to 1, by It was transferred to Quebec under the Quebec Act of By in a census taken during the American Revolution , its population was up to 2, It was then the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec , after Montreal and Quebec.
After a steady but growing trickle of Anglo-European settlers took families across the barrier range , or through lower New York State into the Ohio Country —gradually spreading across present-day Ohio along the south shore of Lake Erie and around the bottom of Lake Huron.
After the Sullivan Expedition broke the power of the Iroquois, the New York corridor joined the gaps of the Allegheny , Cumberland Narrows and Cumberland Gap as mountain passes , enabling settlers to pour west into the mid-west, even as the American Revolution wound down. After the peace, a flood of settlers poured west, and Detroit reaped its share of population, established itself as a gateway to other traffic to the west and other Great Lakes, and for a time outshone all other cities west of the mountains, save for New Orleans.
During the 19th century, Detroit grew into a thriving hub of commerce and industry. After a devastating fire in , Augustus B. Monumental avenues and traffic circles were planned to fan out in radial fashion from Campus Martius Park in the heart of the city. This was intended to ease traffic patterns and trees were planted along the boulevards and parks. The city spread along Jefferson Avenue, with multiple manufacturing firms taking advantage of the transportation resources afforded by the river and a parallel rail line.
In the late 19th century several Gilded Age mansions were built just east of Detroit's current downtown. Detroit was referred to by some as the Paris of the West for its architecture , and for Washington Boulevard , recently electrified by Thomas Edison. Following World War II , the auto industry boomed and the area witnessed suburban expansion.
The Detroit metropolitan area has emerged as one of the largest in the United States. Immigrants and migrants have contributed significantly to Detroit's economy and culture. In the s and the new millennium, the city has experienced increased revitalization. The city with its population migration to the suburbs has had to adjust its role in the midst of a much larger metropolitan area in the 21st century.
Hearths and geological features from the Holcombe beach site near Lake Saint Clair show that Paleo-Indian people settled in the area of Detroit as early as 11, years ago. In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron , Odawa , Potawatomi and Iroquois peoples. The first recorded mention of the site was in the s, when French missionaries found a stone idol venerated by the Indians there and destroyed it with an axe.
Early settlers planted twelve missionary pear trees "named for the twelve Apostles " on the grounds of what is now Waterworks Park. The city name comes from the Detroit River French: Clair and the St. In he was given ownership over the strenuous opposition of officials in New France.
An investigation by de Pontchartrain showed Cadillac was a tyrannical profiteer whose mischief hurt the French cause, so Cadillac was removed and sent to faraway New Orleans as governor of Louisiana. The main business was trading furs with the Indians, using goods supplied from Montreal.
Control of the area was formally transferred to the British by the Treaty of Paris New France was renamed Quebec and the settlement became Detroit. Grants of free land attracted families to Detroit, which grew to people in Demonstrating their independent power, several tribes in the region collaborated in Pontiac's Rebellion in ; they overran many smaller forts but could not subdue Detroit.
Detroit was the goal of various American campaigns during the American Revolution , but logistical difficulties in the North American frontier and American Indian allies of Great Britain would keep any armed rebel force from reaching the Detroit area. In the Treaty of Paris , Great Britain ceded territory that included Detroit to the newly recognized United States, though in reality it remained under British control. Great Britain continued to trade with and defend her native he area, and supplied local nations with weapons to harass American settlers and soldiers.
The British left in following the Jay Treaty. In , a Native American alliance, that had received some support and encouragement from the British, was decisively defeated by General Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near Toledo, Ohio.
Wayne negotiated the Treaty of Greenville with many of these nations, in which tribes ceded the area of Fort Detroit to the United States. Father Gabriel Richard arrived at Ste. He helped start the school which evolved into the University of Michigan , started primary schools for white boys and girls as well as for Indians, as a territorial representative to U.
Congress helped establish a road-building project that connected Detroit and Chicago , and brought the first printing press to Michigan which printed the first Michigan newspaper. A river warehouse and brick chimneys of the wooden homes were the sole structures to survive. Detroit was incorporated as a town by the legislature of the Northwest Territory at Chillicothe, Ohio , on January 18, , effective February 1, Government was administered by a five-person board of trustees and there was no office of mayor.
Following this, Ohio became a state and the eastern half of Michigan was attached to the Indiana Territory. Before the new territorial government officially began, a fire destroyed nearly all of Detroit on June 11, The Michigan Territory was established effective June 30, , as a separate territory with Detroit as the capital.
The newly appointed governor, William Hull , and the territorial judges Augustus B. They convinced the U. After the fire of , Justice Augustus B. Detroit's monumental avenues and traffic circles fan out in a baroque styled radial fashion from Grand Circus Park in the heart of the city's theater district , which facilitates traffic patterns along the city's tree-lined boulevards and parks. On September 13, , the territorial government passed an act incorporating the new city of Detroit. The governor appointed Solomon Sibley as mayor.
Shortly afterward, Sibley resigned and Elijah Brush was appointed in his stead. The mayor was appointed by the governor and, under the act of incorporation, was able to disapprove legislation passed by the popularly elected council without any recourse for overriding the mayor. Because of this, many felt that the real aim of the governor in incorporating the city was to remove the popularly elected town officers and exert a more direct influence over governance of the city.
However, to prevent resurrection of the popularly elected town government, on September 16, , an act passed repealing all laws pertaining to Michigan that had been passed by the Legislature of the Northwest Territory. This effectively eradicated any trace of legitimacy for the former popularly elected town government. In the War of , Governor Hull surrendered Detroit to a smaller British force which threatened to allow its Indian allies to kill all American prisoners.
Tecumseh marched his native troops through a clearing and then circled the same troops through the clearing again to make it seem there was a much larger native force. Hull was convicted of cowardice and sentenced to death by a court martial, but received a presidential pardon. Army recaptured Detroit in after the British abandoned it and used it as a base to invade Canada and permanently end the threat of Indian raids on American settlements. Lewis Cass , as territorial governor, on October 24, , restored control of local affairs to the people of Detroit, with the election of a five-person board of trustees and enactment of a charter for the city of Detroit.
Government under the board of trustees continued until an act of the Territorial Legislature on August 5, , created a Common Council of the City of Detroit.
The Council consisted of five aldermen, the mayor, and the recorder. In an act of April 4, , the number of aldermen increased to seven.
In , it increased to A seventh ward was created in , an eighth in , and the ninth and tenth wards in Also in , a new city charter provided that the mayor and recorder would no longer sit as members of the council. At this time, the council consisted of 20 members, two aldermen from ten wards. In , a twelfth ward was added and aldermen from an illegally constituted eleventh ward also temporarily sat on the council.
In , a properly constituted eleventh ward and a thirteenth ward were added. The city charter of changed the name of the body to the Board of Aldermen. A few years earlier in , a separately elected ten-person body named Board of Councilmen also called the City Council , was established. This body was abolished in After Detroit rebuilt in the early 19th century, a thriving community soon sprang up, and by the Civil War , over 45, people were living in the city,  primarily spread along Jefferson Avenue to the east and Fort Street to the west.
As in many major American cities, subsequent redevelopment of the central city through the next years has eliminated all but a handful of the antebellum structures in Detroit.
The oldest remaining structures are those built as private residences, including a group in the Corktown neighborhood and another set of houses strung along Jefferson Avenue — notably the Charles Trowbridge House , the oldest known structure in the city , the Joseph Campau House , the Sibley House , the Beaubien House , and the Moross House The main communication medium from the s until the rise of television in the s was the newspaper.
Detroit had a large variety of daily papers, meeting the needs of the political parties have different language groups in the city, as well as the needs of readers concerned with news of business, labor, agriculture, literature, local churches, and polite society. Prior to the American Civil War , the city's access to the Canada—US border made it a key stop for runaway slaves along the underground railroad.
Abraham Lincoln is quoted as saying Thank God for Michigan! The Detroit race riot of occurred on March 6, and was the city's first such incident, as Irish and German Catholics resisted the mandatory draft laws. At the time, it was reported as "the bloodiest day that ever dawned upon Detroit. Detroit's central location in the Great Lakes Region has contributed to its status as a major center for commerce and global trade.
As Detroit grew, it emerged as a U. Pharmaceutical firms such as Parke-Davis in the s and the Frederick Stearns Company in the s established centers between East Jefferson Avenue.
Detroit was one of the major Midwest cities that was a site for the dramatic urban revival of the Ku Klux Klan beginning in It was defeated after numerous prosecutions following the kidnapping and murder in of Charles Poole, a Catholic Works Progress Administration organizer.
A total of 49 men of the Black Legion were convicted of numerous crimes, with many sentenced to life in prison for murder. In the s the world's "first urban depressed freeway" ever built, the Davison ,  was constructed in Detroit.
During World War II, the government encouraged retooling of the American automobile industry in support of the Allied powers , leading to Detroit's key role in the American Arsenal of Democracy. Jobs expanded so rapidly that , people were attracted to the city from to , including 50, blacks in the second wave of the Great Migration, and , whites, many of them from the South.
Some European immigrants and their descendants feared black competition for jobs and housing. The federal government prohibited discrimination in defense work but when in June , Packard promoted three blacks to work next to whites on its assembly lines, 25, whites walked off the job. Over the course of three days, 34 people were killed, of whom 25 were African American. Industrial mergers in the s, especially in the automobile sector, increased oligopoly in the American auto industry.
Detroit manufacturers such as Packard and Hudson merged into other companies and eventually disappeared. As in other major American cities in the postwar era, construction of an extensive highway and freeway system around Detroit and pent-up demand for new housing stimulated suburbanization; highways made commuting by car easier. In , Detroit's last heavily used electric streetcar line along the length of Woodward Avenue was removed and replaced with gas-powered buses.
It was the last line of what had once been a mile network of electric streetcars. In at peak times, a streetcar ran on Woodward Avenue every 60 seconds. All of these changes in the area's transportation system favored low-density, auto-oriented development rather than high-density urban development, and industry also moved to the suburbs. The metro Detroit area developed as one of the most sprawling job markets in the United States by the 21st century, and combined with poor public transport, resulted in many jobs beyond the reach of urban low-income workers.
In , the city held about one-third of the state's population, anchored by its industries and workers. Over the next sixty years, the city's population declined to less than 10 percent of the state's population. During the same time period, the sprawling Detroit metropolitan area, which surrounds and includes the city, grew to contain more than half of Michigan's population. In June , Rev.
Martin Luther King Jr. While the civil rights movement gained significant federal civil rights laws in and , longstanding inequities resulted in confrontations between the police and inner city black youth wanting change.
Longstanding tensions in Detroit culminated in the Twelfth Street riot in July The result was 43 dead, injured, over 7, arrests, and more than 2, buildings destroyed, mostly in black residential and business areas. Thousands of small businesses closed permanently or relocated to safer neighborhoods. The affected district lay in ruins for decades. The NAACP argued that although schools were not legally segregated, the city of Detroit and its surrounding counties had enacted policies to maintain racial segregation in public schools.
The NAACP also suggested a direct relationship between unfair housing practices and educational segregation, which followed segregated neighborhoods.
The Sixth Circuit Court affirmed some of the decision, holding that it was the state's responsibility to integrate across the segregated metropolitan area. Supreme Court took up the case February 27, Bradley decision had nationwide influence.
In a narrow decision, the Supreme Court found that schools were a subject of local control and that suburbs could not be forced to solve problems in the city's school district.
Some people were leaving at that time but, really, it was after Milliken that you saw mass flight to the suburbs. If the case had gone the other way, it is likely that Detroit would not have experienced the steep decline in its tax base that has occurred since then. In November , the city elected Coleman Young as its first black mayor. After taking office, Young emphasized increasing racial diversity in the police department. Following the failure to reach an agreement over the larger system, the city moved forward with construction of the elevated downtown circulator portion of the system, which became known as the Detroit People Mover.
The gasoline crises of and also affected Detroit and the U. Buyers chose smaller, more fuel-efficient cars made by foreign makers as the price of gas rose. Efforts to revive the city were stymied by the struggles of the auto industry, as their sales and market share declined. Automakers laid off thousands of employees and closed plants in the city, further eroding the tax base. To counteract this, the city used eminent domain to build two large new auto assembly plants in the city.
As mayor, Young sought to revive the city by seeking to increase investment in the city's declining downtown. The Renaissance Center , a mixed-use office and retail complex, opened in This group of skyscrapers was an attempt to keep businesses in downtown.
Despite the Renaissance Center and other projects, the downtown area continued to lose businesses to the automobile dependent suburbs. Major stores and hotels closed and many large office buildings went vacant. Young was criticized for being too focused on downtown development and not doing enough to lower the city's high crime rate and improve city services.
Long a major population center and site of worldwide automobile manufacturing, Detroit has suffered a long economic decline produced by numerous factors. The peak population was 1.
Following suburbanization, industrial restructuring, and loss of jobs as described above , by the census, the city had less than 40 percent of that number, with just over , residents. The city has declined in population in each census since High unemployment was compounded by middle-class flight to the suburbs, and some residents leaving the state to find work. The city was left with a higher proportion of poor in its population, reduced tax base, depressed property values, abandoned buildings, abandoned neighborhoods, high crime rates and a pronounced demographic imbalance.
On August 16, , Northwest Airlines Flight crashed near Detroit, killing all but one of the people on board, as well as two people on the ground. In Young retired as Detroit's longest serving mayor, deciding not to seek a sixth term. Archer prioritized downtown development and easing tensions with Detroit's suburban neighbors. A referendum to allow casino gambling in the city passed in ; several temporary casino facilities opened in , and permanent downtown casinos with hotels opened in — Campus Martius , a reconfiguration of downtown's main intersection as a new park was opened in The park has been cited as one of the best public spaces in the United States.
In , the first portion of the International Riverfront was completed as a part of the city's th anniversary celebration, with miles of parks and associated landscaping completed in succeeding years.
The number of vacant downtown buildings has dropped from nearly 50 to around Little Caesars Arena , a new home for the Detroit Red Wings and the Detroit Pistons with attached residential, hotel, and retail use opened on September 5, Detroit's protracted decline has resulted in severe urban decay with thousands of empty buildings around the city referred to as greyfield.
Some parts of Detroit are so sparsely populated that the city has difficulty providing municipal services. The city has considered various solutions, such as demolishing abandoned homes and buildings; removing street lighting from large portions of the city; and encouraging the small population in certain areas to move to more populated locations.
In September , Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick who had served for six years resigned following felony convictions. In , Kilpatrick was convicted on 24 federal felony counts, including mail fraud , wire fraud , and racketeering ,  and was sentenced to 28 years in federal prison.
The city's financial crisis resulted in Michigan taking over administrative control of its government. On July 18, , Detroit became the largest U. The following month on December 11 the city officially exited bankruptcy.
One of the largest post-bankruptcy efforts to improve city services has been work to fix the city's broken street lighting system.
The plan calls for replacing outdated high pressure sodium lights with 65, LED lights. Construction began in late and finished in December making Detroit the largest U. S city with all LED street lighting. In the s, several initiatives were taken by Detroit's citizens and new inhabitants to improve the cityscape by renovating and revitalizing neighborhoods.
Such include the Motor City Blight Busters  and various urban gardening movements. Detroit is mentioned as a city of renaissance.
According to the U. Census Bureau , the city has a total area of The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge is the only international wildlife preserve in North America, uniquely located in the heart of a major metropolitan area.
The city slopes gently from the northwest to southeast on a till plain composed largely of glacial and lake clay. Belle Isle Park is a acre 1. It is connected to the mainland by the MacArthur Bridge in Detroit. Belle Isle Park contains such attractions as the James Scott Memorial Fountain , the Belle Isle Conservatory , the Detroit Yacht Club on an adjacent island, a half-mile m beach, a golf course, a nature center, monuments, and gardens.
The city skyline may be viewed from the island. Three road systems cross the city: The city is north of Windsor, Ontario. Detroit is the only major city along the Canada—US border in which one travels south in order to cross into Canada. Detroit has four border crossings: The monthly daily mean temperature ranges from The average window for freezing temperatures is October 20 thru April 22, allowing a growing season of days.
Precipitation is moderate and somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, although the warmer months such as May and June average more, averaging These usually occur during spring and summer. Seen in panorama, Detroit's waterfront shows a variety of architectural styles. Together with the Renaissance Center , they form a distinctive and recognizable skyline.
While the Downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes. Outside of the city's core, residential high-rises are found in upper-class neighborhoods such as the East Riverfront extending toward Grosse Pointe and the Palmer Park neighborhood just west of Woodward. The National Register of Historic Places lists several area neighborhoods and districts. Neighborhoods constructed prior to World War II feature the architecture of the times, with wood-frame and brick houses in the working-class neighborhoods, larger brick homes in middle-class neighborhoods, and ornate mansions in upper-class neighborhoods such as Brush Park , Woodbridge , Indian Village , Palmer Woods , Boston-Edison , and others.
Some of the oldest neighborhoods are along the Woodward and East Jefferson corridors. Some newer residential construction may also be found along the Woodward corridor, the far west, and northeast. Some of the oldest extant neighborhoods include West Canfield and Brush Park , which have both seen multimillion-dollar restorations and construction of new homes and condominiums. The city has one of United States' largest surviving collections of late 19th- and early 20th-century buildings. Joseph's , Old St.
The city has substantial activity in urban design, historic preservation, and architecture. The Detroit International Riverfront includes a partially completed three-and-one-half mile riverfront promenade with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas.
The second phase is a two-mile 3. Civic planners envision that the pedestrian parks will stimulate residential redevelopment of riverfront properties condemned under eminent domain.
Other major parks include River Rouge in the southwest side , the largest park in Detroit; Palmer north of Highland Park and Chene Park on the east river downtown.
Detroit has a variety of neighborhood types. The revitalized Downtown, Midtown , and New Center areas feature many historic buildings and are high density, while further out, particularly in the northeast and on the fringes,  high vacancy levels are problematic, for which a number of solutions have been proposed. Lafayette Park is a revitalized neighborhood on the city's east side , part of the Ludwig Mies van der Rohe residential district. The city has numerous neighborhoods consisting of vacant properties resulting in low inhabited density in those areas, stretching city services and infrastructure.
These neighborhoods are concentrated in the northeast and on the city's fringes. To deal with vacancy issues, the city has begun demolishing the derelict houses, razing 3, of the total 10, in ,  but the resulting low density creates a strain on the city's infrastructure.
To remedy this, a number of solutions have been proposed including resident relocation from more sparsely populated neighborhoods and converting unused space to urban agricultural use, including Hantz Woodlands , though the city expects to be in the planning stages for up to another two years. Public funding and private investment have also been made with promises to rehabilitate neighborhoods.
In the United States Census , the city had , residents, ranking it the 18th most populous city in the United States. Of the large shrinking cities of the United States , Detroit has had the most dramatic decline in population of the past 60 years down 1,, and the second largest percentage decline down Louis, Missouri 's The population collapse has resulted in large numbers of abandoned homes and commercial buildings, and areas of the city hit hard by urban decay.
Detroit's , residents represent , households, and , families residing in the city. The population density was 5, There were , housing units at an average density of 2, Housing density has declined. The city has demolished thousands of Detroit's abandoned houses, planting some areas and in others allowing the growth of urban prairie. Of the , households, Average household size was 2. There is a wide distribution of age in the city, with The median age was 31 years.
For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The loss of industrial and working-class jobs in the city has resulted in high rates of poverty and associated problems. Of every three Detroit residents, one lives in poverty. Luke Bergmann, author of Getting Ghost: Two Young Lives and the Struggle for the Soul of an American City , said in , "Detroit is now one of the poorest big cities in the country. Out of the total population, Oakland County in Metro Detroit, once rated amongst the wealthiest US counties per household, is no longer shown in the top 25 listing of Forbes magazine.
But internal county statistical methods—based on measuring per capita income for counties with more than one million residents—show that Oakland is still within the top 12, slipping from the 4th-most affluent such county in the U.
In , fewer than 6, blacks called the city home;  in more than , blacks lived in Detroit. Detroit remains one of the most racially segregated cities in the United States. While African-Americans comprised only 13 percent of Michigan's population in , they made up nearly 82 percent of Detroit's population. The next largest population groups were Whites, at 10 percent, and Hispanics, at 6 percent.
In the first decade of the 21st century, about two-thirds of the total black population in metropolitan area resided within the city limits of Detroit. The city has also moved down the ranking, from number one most segregated to number four. This pattern already happened in the s, when apparent integration was actually a precursor to white flight and resegregation.
According to an estimate of the Michigan Metropolitan Information Center, from to the percentage of non-Hispanic White residents increased from 8. Some empty nesters and many younger White people moved into the city while many African Americans moved to the suburbs. Detroit has a Mexican-American population. In the early 20th century thousands of Mexicans came to Detroit to work in agricultural, automotive, and steel jobs.
During the Mexican Repatriation of the s many Mexicans in Detroit were willingly repatriated or forced to repatriate.
By the s the Mexican community began to settle what is now Mexicantown. The population significantly increased in the s due to immigration from Jalisco. In Detroit had 48, Hispanics, including 36, Mexicans. Appalachians formed communities and their children acquired southern accents.
In , , Jews, or about 1. As of there are four areas in Detroit with significant Asian and Asian American populations. Northeast Detroit has population of Hmong with a smaller group of Lao people.
A portion of Detroit next to eastern Hamtramck includes Bangladeshi Americans , Indian Americans , and Pakistani Americans ; nearly all of the Bangladeshi population in Detroit lives in that area. Many of those residents own small businesses or work in blue collar jobs, and the population in that area is mostly Muslim.
The area north of Downtown Detroit ; including the region around the Henry Ford Hospital , the Detroit Medical Center , and Wayne State University ; has transient Asian national origin residents who are university students or hospital workers. Few of them have permanent residency after schooling ends. They are mostly Chinese and Indian but the population also includes Filipinos, Koreans, and Pakistanis. In Southwest Detroit and western Detroit there are smaller, scattered Asian communities including an area in the westside adjacent to Dearborn and Redford Township that has a mostly Indian Asian population, and a community of Vietnamese and Laotians in Southwest Detroit.
As of [update] the city has one of the U. Hmong immigrant families generally have lower incomes than those of suburban Asian families. Several major corporations are based in the city, including three Fortune companies. The most heavily represented sectors are manufacturing particularly automotive , finance, technology, and health care.
About 80, people work in downtown Detroit, comprising one-fifth of the city's employment base. Ford Motor Company is located in the adjacent city of Dearborn. Thousands more employees work in Midtown, north of the central business district. Midtown is also home to watchmaker Shinola and an array of small and startup companies. A number of the city's downtown employers are relatively new, as there has been a marked trend of companies moving from satellite suburbs around Metropolitan Detroit into the downtown core.
Perhaps most prominently, in , Quicken Loans , one of the largest mortgage lenders, relocated its world headquarters and 4, employees to downtown Detroit, consolidating its suburban offices. Patent and Trademark Office opened its Elijah J. The city of Detroit and other private-public partnerships have attempted to catalyze the region's growth by facilitating the building and historical rehabilitation of residential high-rises in the downtown, creating a zone that offers many business tax incentives, creating recreational spaces such as the Detroit RiverWalk, Campus Martius Park , Dequindre Cut Greenway, and Green Alleys in Midtown.
The city itself has cleared sections of land while retaining a number of historically significant vacant buildings in order to spur redevelopment;  even though it has struggled with finances, the city issued bonds in to provide funding for ongoing work to demolish blighted properties. Despite the city's recent financial issues, many developers remain unfazed by Detroit's problems. Downtown's population of young professionals is growing and retail is expanding.
John Varvatos is set to open a downtown store in , and Restoration Hardware is rumored to be opening a store nearby. On July 25, , Meijer , a midwestern retail chain, opened its first supercenter store in Detroit,;  this was a 20 million dollar, ,square-foot store in the northern portion of the city and it also is the centerpiece of a new 72 million dollar shopping center named Gateway Marketplace. It is the largest commitment made to any one city by the nation's biggest bank.
In the central portions of Detroit, the population of young professionals, artists, and other transplants is growing and retail is expanding.
A desire to be closer to the urban scene has also attracted some young professionals to reside in inner ring suburbs such as Ferndale and Royal Oak , Michigan. Known as the world's automotive center,  "Detroit" is a metonym for that industry.
Live music has been a prominent feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late s, bringing the city recognition under the nickname 'Motown'. Concerts hosted by Live Nation perform throughout the Detroit area. The city's theatre venue circuit is the United States' second largest and hosts Broadway performances. The city of Detroit has a rich musical heritage and has contributed to a number of different genres over the decades leading into the new millennium.
In the s, Detroit blues artist John Lee Hooker became a long-term resident in the city's southwest Delray neighborhood. Hooker, among other important blues musicians migrated from his home in Mississippi bringing the Delta blues to northern cities like Detroit.
During the s, the city became a center for jazz, with stars performing in the Black Bottom neighborhood. According to Smokey Robinson, Strong was a primary influence on his voice as a teenager. The Fortune label was a family-operated label located on Third Avenue in Detroit, and was owned by the husband and wife team of Jack Brown and Devora Brown. Fortune, which also released country, gospel and rockabilly LPs and 45s, laid the groundwork for Motown, which became Detroit's most legendary record label.
Artists were backed by in-house vocalists  The Andantes and The Funk Brothers , the Motown house band that was featured in Paul Justman's documentary film Standing in the Shadows of Motown , based on Allan Slutsky's book of the same name. The Motown Sound played an important role in the crossover appeal with popular music, since it was the first African American owned record label to primarily feature African-American artists.
Gordy moved Motown to Los Angeles in to pursue film production, but the company has since returned to Detroit. Local artists and bands rose to prominence in the s and 70s including: The group Kiss emphasized the city's connection with rock in the song Detroit Rock City and the movie produced in In the s, Detroit was an important center of the hardcore punk rock underground with many nationally known bands coming out of the city and its suburbs, such as The Necros , The Meatmen , and Negative Approach.
In the s and the new millennium, the city has produced a number of influential hip hop artists, including Eminem , the hip-hop artist with the highest cumulative sales, hip-hop producer J Dilla , rapper and producer Esham and hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse.
The city is also home to rappers Big Sean and Danny Brown. Detroit is cited as the birthplace of techno music in the early s. Featuring science fiction imagery and robotic themes, its futuristic style was greatly influenced by the geography of Detroit's urban decline and its industrial past. In the early years — , this was a landmark event, boasting over a million estimated attendees annually, coming from all over the world to celebrate Techno music in the city of its birth.
The Nederlander Organization , the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated with the purchase of the Detroit Opera House in by the Nederlander family. Because of its unique culture , distinctive architecture , and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century , Detroit has enjoyed increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years.
The New York Times listed Detroit as the 9th-best destination in its list of 52 Places to Go in ,  while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in Many of the area's prominent museums are located in the historic cultural center neighborhood around Wayne State University and the College for Creative Studies.
In , the G. Important history of America and the Detroit area are exhibited at The Henry Ford in Dearborn , the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex. Inside Detroit, meanwhile, hosts tours, educational programming, and a downtown welcome center. Chrysler Museum in Auburn Hills. The city's Greektown and three downtown casino resort hotels serve as part of an entertainment hub.
The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than foods and specialty businesses. Midtown has about 50, residents and attracts millions of visitors each year to its museums and cultural centers;  for example, the Detroit Festival of the Arts in Midtown draws about , people. As the world's traditional automotive center, the city hosts the North American International Auto Show.
Held since , America's Thanksgiving Parade is one of the nation's largest. The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well.
The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated and executed by Robert Graham , is a foot 7. Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the Heidelberg Project in , using found objects including cars, clothing and shoes found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Street on the near East Side of Detroit.
Detroit is one of 13 U. Since , all of these teams play in the city limits of Detroit itself, a distinction shared with only three other U.
Detroit is the only U. There are three active major sports venues in the city: A marketing campaign promoted the nickname " Hockeytown ". The Detroit Tigers have won four World Series titles. Two new downtown stadiums for the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions opened in and , respectively, returning the Lions to the city proper.
In college sports, Detroit's central location within the Mid-American Conference has made it a frequent site for the league's championship events. The local soccer team is called the Detroit City Football Club and was founded in In the years following the mids, Detroit was referred to as the "City of Champions" after the Tigers, Lions, and Red Wings captured all three major professional sports championships in a seven-month period of time the Tigers won the World Series in October ; the Lions won the NFL championship in December ; the Red Wings won the Stanley Cup in April Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship of the world in Detroit has made the most bids to host the Summer Olympics without ever being awarded the games: The city government is run by a mayor and a nine-member city council and clerk.
Seven city council members are elected via district while two are elected at large. The mayor and clerk are elected in an at large election as well. Since voters approved the city's charter in , Detroit has had a " strong mayoral " system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments.
The council approves budgets but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council. The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Municipal elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held at four-year intervals, in the year after presidential elections.
Detroit's courts are state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. The city provides law enforcement through the Detroit Police Department and emergency services through the Detroit Fire Department.
Detroit has struggled with high crime for decades. The number of homicides peaked in at and again in with The Murder rate for the city have gone up and down throughout the years averaging over murders with a population of over 1,, residents. The crime rate however has been above the nation average since the s   Crime has since decreased and, in , the murder rate was About half of all murders in Michigan in occurred in Detroit.
The city's downtown typically has lower crime than national and state averages. In , crime in the city was among the reasons for more expensive car insurance. Beginning with its incorporation in , Detroit has had a total of 74 mayors. Detroit's last mayor from the Republican Party was Louis Miriani , who served from to In , the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young.
Despite development efforts, his combative style during his five terms in office was not well received by many suburban residents. By , three major casino resort hotels established operations in the city. In , the city requested an investigation by the United States Justice Department into the Detroit Police Department which was concluded in over allegations regarding its use of force and civil rights violations.
The city proceeded with a major reorganization of the Detroit Police Department. It has been making ends meet on a month-to-month basis with the help of bond money held in a state escrow account and has instituted mandatory unpaid days off for many city workers. Those troubles, along with underfunded city services, such as police and fire departments, and ineffective turnaround plans from Bing and the City Council  led the state of Michigan to appoint an emergency manager for Detroit on March 14, Detroit is home to several institutions of higher learning including Wayne State University , a national research university with medical and law schools in the Midtown area offering hundreds of academic degrees and programs.
The University of Detroit Mercy offers more than a hundred academic degrees and programs of study including business, dentistry , law , engineering, architecture, nursing and allied health professions. Sacred Heart Major Seminary , founded in , is affiliated with Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome and offers pontifical degrees as well as civil undergraduate and graduate degrees. Sacred Heart Major Seminary offers a variety of academic programs for both clerical and lay students.
In , University of Michigan—Dearborn was established in neighboring Dearborn. Detroit has an additional 56, charter school students for a combined enrollment of about , students.
In , the Michigan Legislature removed the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor. The elected board of education was re-established following a city referendum in The first election of the new member board of education occurred on November 8, Due to growing Detroit charter schools enrollment as well as a continued exodus of population, the city planned to close many public schools.
Public and charter school students in the city have performed poorly on standardized tests. While Detroit public schools scored a record low on national tests, the publicly funded charter schools did even worse than the public schools. Detroit public schools students scored the lowest on tests of reading and writing of all major cities in the United States in Detroit is served by various private schools, as well as parochial Roman Catholic schools operated by the Archdiocese of Detroit.
As of [update] there are four Catholic grade schools and three Catholic high schools in the City of Detroit, with all of them in the city's west side. In the — school year there were about Catholic grade schools in Detroit, Hamtramck , and Highland Park and 55 Catholic high schools in those three cities.
The Catholic school population in Detroit has decreased due to the increase of charter schools , increasing tuition at Catholic schools, the small number of African-American Catholics, White Catholics moving to suburbs, and the decreased number of teaching nuns.
The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are the major daily newspapers, both broadsheet publications published together under a joint operating agreement called the Detroit Newspaper Partnership. Also founded in and based in Detroit the Michigan Chronicle is one of the oldest and most respected African-American weekly newspapers in America.
Covering politics, entertainment, sports and community events. Detroit has the 11th largest radio market in the United States,  though this ranking does not take into account Canadian audiences. Hardcore Pawn , a U. John Health System , and the John D. Dingell VA Medical Center. The DMC has more than 2, licensed beds and 3, affiliated physicians.
It is the largest private employer in the City of Detroit. Detroit Medical Center formally became a part of Vanguard Health Systems on December 30, , as a for profit corporation. Joseph's, and University of Michigan Medical Center. With its proximity to Canada and its facilities, ports, major highways, rail connections and international airports, Detroit is an important transportation hub.
Mass transit in the region is provided by bus services. Cross border service between the downtown areas of Windsor and Detroit is provided by Transit Windsor via the Tunnel Bus. An elevated rail system known as the People Mover , completed in , provides daily service around a 2. The Regional Transit Authority RTA was established by an act of the Michigan legislature in December to oversee and coordinate all existing regional mass transit operations, and to develop new transit services in the region.
The RTA's first project was the introduction of RelfeX, a limited-stop , cross-county bus service connecting downtown and midtown Detroit with Oakland county via Woodward avenue. Amtrak provides service to Detroit, operating its Wolverine service between Chicago and Pontiac. The Amtrak station is located in New Center north of downtown. Westcott II , which delivers mail to lake freighters on the Detroit River, is the world's only floating post office.
The city of Detroit has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Young International Airport DET , previously called Detroit City Airport, is on Detroit's northeast side; the airport now maintains only charter service and general aviation. Metro Detroit has an extensive toll-free network of freeways administered by the Michigan Department of Transportation.
Four major Interstate Highways surround the city. I Chrysler and Fisher freeways is the region's main north—south route, serving Flint , Pontiac , Troy , and Detroit, before continuing south as the Detroit—Toledo and Seaway Freeways to serve many of the communities along the shore of Lake Erie.
The stretch of the current I freeway from Ypsilanti to Detroit was one of America's earlier limited-access highways. A portion was known as the Willow Run Expressway. The I freeway runs northwest—southeast through Livingston, Oakland and Wayne counties and as the Jeffries Freeway through Wayne County has its eastern terminus in downtown Detroit.
I runs north—south from I in the south to the junction of I and I in the north, providing a bypass through the western suburbs of Detroit. I is a short spur route in downtown Detroit, an extension of the Chrysler Freeway. I Reuther Freeway runs east—west from the junction of I and I, providing a route through the northern suburbs of Detroit.
Taken together, I and I form a semicircle around Detroit. Michigan state highways designated with the letter M serve to connect major freeways. Detroit is home to the only floating post office in the United States. In , The J. Westcott II became a floating post office servicing the Port of Detroit.
Its zip code is Originally established in as a maritime reporting agency to inform other vessels about port conditions, the J. Westcott II is still in operation today. Detroit has seven sister cities , as designated by Sister Cities International: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Detroit Michigan. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 26 October This article is about the city in Michigan.
For other uses, see Detroit disambiguation. For other uses, see Motor City disambiguation and Detroit City disambiguation. Largest city in Michigan. City and county seat in Michigan, United States.
From top to bottom, left to right: Location in Michigan and the contiguous United States. History of Detroit and Timeline of Detroit. Decline of Detroit and Detroit bankruptcy. Planning and development in Detroit.
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