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A History of the County of Essex: Volume 9, the Borough of Colchester. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, This free content was digitised by double rekeying. In Colchester was primarily a market town for the surrounding agricultural area, in addition processing some of the produce and providing retailing and professional services.
Nevertheless the town's proximity to the London market, its position on the road to Harwich and the Continent, and its port encouraged wider trade. The silk industry had partly replaced the earlier trade in bays and says but never assumed comparable scale or importance. Trade with the surrounding rural communities was affected by the state of agriculture, which gradually recovered from depression following the Napoleonic Wars to greater prosperity from the s.
The port at the Hythe was an important centre of local trade with many warehouses, but because it needed improvement by c. There was one shipbuilder, P. Sainty, in but none in , local shipbuilding being just outside the borough at Wivenhoe. More than 50 ships belonged to the town, but small craft from other places along the Colne also operated from the Hythe.
The comparatively insignificant foreign trade consisted chiefly of wines from Spain, oil cakes from Holland, and timber from the Baltic.
Hawkins were important timber merchants. Business improved after the channel was deepened from the Hythe to Fingringhoe in , allowing larger ships to berth, essential if trade was not to be lost to other ports, especially Ipswich, where a wet dock had been created in Local businessmen were able to exploit the competition between providers of transport by sea and by rail to keep down the prices charged for heavy freight.
The occupational structure in reflected Colchester's position as a market town. The leading male occupations were in agricultural and general labouring, market gardening, processing and retailing food and drink, shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry, bricklaying, upholstery, drapery, and seafaring; women and girls worked predominantly in domestic service, tailoring, millinery, laundry, and the silk industry.
The employment structure was similar in the rival town of Ipswich, except that Colchester, because it covered a larger area, had proportionately three times as many agricultural labourers, equivalent to nearly a tenth of employees, most of whom worked in its outlying rural parishes. Unrecorded casual and temporary employment, and domestic and part-time work, particularly of women and children, add complexity to the apparent pattern of employment. The town's silk industry, never of great importance, had been declining from the s.
In the remaining 40 to 60 weavers, employed as outworkers for London firms, were earning less than farm labourers, and some at times were forced to enter the workhouse with their families. Some weavers worked at part of the former Napoleonic barracks in Military Road. Many people were employed in occcupations connected with the supply of food and drink. Market gardening remained important in the borough and its hinterland, and garden seeds were produced for sale. From the s trains could carry perishable produce rapidly to the expanding London markets.
East mill had been acquired in by a branch of the Marriage family, who introduced steam power in , an innovation which other mill owners adopted over the next 10 years. In there were three maltings at the Hythe, convenient for the import of barley and for the export to London of malt. Botolph's Street, had by become Charrington Nicholl's, and had moved to the bottom of East Hill.
Botolph's beer brewery north of St. Giles's church was bought by J. A brewery which C. Stopes had established at East Hill in was given to R. Hurnard in and became the Eagle brewery. Daniell and Bishop were operating at the Castle brewery by , and by had absorbed the small Northgate brewery off North Hill. Clothing and footwear were still supplied by small craftworkers and traders in , when more than 1, people were employed in the clothing industry, many presumably working in their own homes, and almost in boot and shoe manufacture in small workshops.
Small and mediumsized firms could hire machines on lease, but production remained small-scale at first. The number of footwear businesses increased from 72 in to 97 in as population increased. Firms in the building industry were also small. In eight small brickmaking works, five of which were at Mile End, employed 26 men. In there were tradesmen besides an unknown number of labourers employed in c. The foundries, which maintained close links with the wider ironmongery trades and shops, had not been established solely to supply agricultural needs; farm implements retailed by local ironmongers were often bought from outside manufacturers.
The foundries formed the basis for future expansion in the engineering industries. John's Street into engineering premises called the Abbeygate works. He remained involved with the building industry, erecting several iron bridges, including Colchester's new North bridge in , and the Coggeshall gasworks, besides making agricultural implements which he exhibited at agricultural shows.
He was bankrupted in , but was able to resume business by having taken over premises in the Castle bailey. He ceased operating in Colchester in when he took over a Chelmsford foundry. Botolph's Street by William Dearn, a nailmaker and ironmonger, by , when he made the gates for the new town hall.
The number of professionals was relatively small; in there were only 32 clergymen, 28 medical men, and 34 solicitors and lawyers. Edward Williams, for example, honorary physician to the Essex and Colchester hospital , was mayor four times. Philbrick, who worked for the Liberals and and advised several public companies, was one of a succession of solicitors who exercised considerable power in the office of town clerk.
Banking and insurance services became increasingly important in underpinning the local economy. In there were two small private banks, both in High Street: Charles Henry Hawkins, prominent in local politics, was one of its chairmen. The society was still operating in In the late 19th and early 20th century Colchester remained an important market town for the surrounding rural area.
Agriculture continued to prosper until c. Provisions and equipment were needed for horses as well as for men at the garrison: Engineering developed substantially from the few small ironfoundries to become the leading industry by Firms in engineering, in the other leading manufacturing industries of footwear and clothing, and to a lesser extent in brewing, milling, and printing, gradually widened their markets at home, and some also abroad, especially in the Empire, and increasingly sought economies of scale in larger factories with modern machinery.
The number of artisan workshops decreased in many different trades, but the expansion of the service sector, including the growth of both private and municipal public services, created new employment, some of it administrative and clerical. Because the town's industrial growth came later than in places in the north and midlands, it was less dependent on staple industries like cotton and iron and steel, which were threatened by competition from more recently industrialized countries in Europe and from the United States.
Nevertheless, despite overall growth, there were periods of much economic uncertainty and frequent unemployment. Railway services continued to improve, and local firms were keen to use them, capitalizing on the advantage of a fast link with markets in London and beyond. Some businessmen were already commuting daily to London before Parry's was an oil cake manufacturing and seed crushing firm.
Cyclical economic fluctuations, increased mechanization, and more intense international competition caused variations in the demand for labour. Many families were reported in to be on the verge of starvation because of the breadwinners' lack of work, and some limited public works schemes were initiated by the council.
The First World War gave temporary stimulation to the production of food, the manufacture of munitions and uniforms, effective demands for higher wages, and the employment of women, but afterwards the problems of overcapacity in some parts of industry and of unemployment in the s and s were less severe in Colchester than they were in other parts of the country.
In Colchester in the first half of on average 18 per cent of male industrial workers were out of work, but local unemployment was still increasing in early because of the discharge of men from the army. Recovery came in the later s with changes in the national and international economy, and some changes in central government policies, including eventually rearmament, and some industrial reorganisation.
As conditions in more deeply depressed towns improved, the multiplier effect contributed to better economic prospects in Colchester. Between the wars the port was further improved, King Edward quay being extended in and Haven quay built in the late s, allowing larger vessels to berth, and port traffic increased during both World Wars. In grain, coal, special clay for making partition blocks, cement, linseed, timber, petrol, and road-making materials were imported by sea. Nevertheless rail and road communications were more significant for local manufacturing industries.
Botolph's and the Hythe railway stations were used mainly for goods transport, and there were also private sidings. The Hythe district was an increasingly important industrial centre for the town, the new electricity power station being opened there in and new firms moving in during the s and s. By the s, despite the further expansion of the barracks, the town had lost ground to Chelmsford, which, as a county and cathedral town and an important centre of the new electrical and light engineering industries, was seen as the main economic rival.
Although small businesses and larger family firms still dominated the private sector, the concentration in some industries into fewer and larger firms and the introduction of new technology had already begun. In Colchester as elsewhere the public sector continued to grow. Employment opportunities were starting to widen, although most unskilled workers and women still had very limited choices. The effects of periods of unemployment and sickness were mitigated by improved public services and less severe poor-relief policies.
By Tables XI and XII the structure of local employment showed some significant changes from that of the mid 19th century, with engineering and machine making becoming the leading male occupational category not counting defence, which occupied more than a quarter of the men in the town. Conveyance of men, goods, and messages took second place, the railways alone employing men, whilst numbers in the construction industry, which came third, remained about the same as in when it had narrowly been first but constituted a smaller proportion of the increased population.
Employment was growing in food, tobacco, drink, and lodging, and also in agriculture because of increased market gardening and flower growing. Dress clothing and footwear employed fewer men than in because of the decline of the boot and shoe industry.
In most employed women and girls were in domestic service, while tailoring and other dress trades were increasing slightly, as new clothing firms started up. More women worked in shops as retailing expanded, and clerical work was becoming a significant occupation, with women employed. A few women, by , were able to follow careers in teaching, provided they remained unmarried, but employment opportunities for women of all classes remained much more limited than those for their male counterparts.
Transport and communications were still in second place, with men working in road transport, many of them on trams and buses. The construction industry had lost ground, the war having brought building almost to a standstill. New employment opportunities were opening up in the service sector with growth in commerce, finance, and insurance, and in public administration as central and local government expanded. More than a third of working women worked in personal service, over half of them 1, in domestic service although the number had already started to fall slightly.
The clothing industry was still the second greatest source of female employment, but office work, usually of a routine type, was increasingly available.
Already in retailing employed men and women, and by the early s as many as 50 motor buses and coaches daily were bringing people from a radius of c. The firm grew into a small manufacturing company, and by was exporting to home and foreign markets, and had also diversified into marine engine repairs.
It closed in Dearn's foundry, near St. Botolph's station, was taken over in by Joseph Blomfield, an ironmonger, and his partner Thomas Mayhew Bear, who developed the Britannia works alongside Dearn's.
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Botolph's brewery in Stanwell Street, and by , when it was seriously damaged by fire, he was employing people, and supplying nine London shops and a Liverpool trader. He opened a new factory lit by electricity, and had employees in , overtaking Knopp as the leading footwear manufacturer.
The industry declined locally in the early 20th century, and by only Knopp's and George's remained of the earlier large firms. Knopp, who had become sole proprietor in and made Knopp's a limited liability company in , died in , and the firm apparently closed soon afterwards. Some of the tailoring firms, who had been supplying outwork in the area set up factories.
Moses and Simon Hyam, sons of Hyam Hyam, continued his clothing business; based in London, the firm was trading from St. Botolph's Street in , but by had opened a new factory in Abbeygate Street with modern cutting and sewing machines. Moses, another London business, traded in Colchester between and c. In six large firms were reportedly employing 2, females and males. By when Hyam's was employing people at the Abbeygate Works and many others on outwork, it was considered the largest English wholesale firm dealing exclusively in ready-made clothing.
The Colchester Manufacturing Co. Peake's in East Stockwell Street, the only new firm to appear, specialized in bespoke men's wear. The larger breweries, using new mechanized methods, grew at the expense of the smaller ones. Those two breweries were merged in with the firm of Arthur T.
Osborne, son of J. Osborne, which had 70 tied houses, to form the Colchester Brewing Co. The larger breweries competed with each other for control of tied houses whose numbers were limited by the licensing laws. Milling became concentrated in a few larger, mechanized mills. In the 10 pairs of millstones were augmented with two sets of rollers, and by at least 2, sacks of finished flour were produced every week.
The firm was controlled by the government in the First World War, and afterwards had problems of excess capacity because bread consumption fell as the standard of living improved. It managed to modernize and diversify to produce a wide range of goods: The publication and printing of local newspapers provided a base for later expansion in the printing industry.
By Benham's, a general printing firm which also produced the Essex Standard , employed 25 men. Newspaper proprietors included J. Harvey, John Taylor, and members of the Benham family, all influential figures in the town. Cullingford's printing firm was founded in , and by employed 36 apprentices and printers at the works in East Stockwell Street and also had a shop in High Street.
Mason's was started in as a small photographic printing business, which also produced the blueprint paper and drawing office equipment needed by local engineering firms; it pioneered photocopying. The firm grew large, diversifying into a wide range of office supplies, and opened the Arclight works in Maidenburgh Street in Rose's, calendar printers on North Hill, took over George's shoe factory in Kendal Road but remained a small-scale business.
In Spottiswoode's, a large London printing firm, came to the Hythe. The printing industry survived the depression reasonably well and the number of local firms increased from 11 to 15 between and Cullingford's opened a new works in East Stockwell Street in , but had some difficulties during the worst years of the depression and in temporarily reduced employees' wages. It introduced new technology from the late s.
Mason's expanded, in opening a branch factory in Magdalen Street for manufacturing sensitized paper, and in moving the Arclight works to a new factory in Cowdray Avenue. It had been founded in by John Castle, a foreman in the silk industry; other skilled men including James Paxman were trustees, and the first shop opened in Culver Street. The business moved to new premises behind St. Nicholas's church in Much of the Co-op's growth was in New Town, which was developed from the s, and by a bakery, the first grocery branch, and a butchery had opened there, besides two other butcheries in North Station Road and at the town centre site.
In the s the Co-op opened grocery stores at Lexden and Rowhedge, and coal depots at St. Botolph's and the Hythe. By when the first motor van was added to the 27 horse-drawn vehicles already in use for deliveries to Co-op shops, there were shops in High Street and Wyre Street, and in , when a modern bakery was established in Kendall Road, transport consisted of 36 horse-drawn and 16 motor vehicles.
In the Co-op opened a dairy in Wimpole Road. As the built-up area of the town grew, not only in New Town, the construction industry provided many new jobs, mostly in small family firms, though the work was often casual.
In Everett's, one of the largest, employed 45 skilled men, 41 labourers, and 2 boys. The cultivation of fruit, vegetables, and flowers by small family businesses was still widespread, and produce could be transported quickly by railway to London.
The work was still labour intensive in the early 20th century; at Mile End c. The service sector, which included public services and hospitals, gradually employed more people. By the borough council had c. In new jobs were provided when the Post Office made Colchester a regional telephone centre.
Parr's bank opened in By there were five banks: Business and professional people, as well as the gentry, invested their capital in new ventures both at home and abroad. Leading shareholders in the Colchester Brewing Co.
Moy's butler and his gardener, who probably received them as gifts from their employer. The growth of trade unionism locally had been hindered in the mid 19th century by the effects of low wages and by the fact that most workers still worked in small, relatively isolated units.
Wages were kept low by the recruitment of factory workers from the depressed surrounding agricultural area, especially in Suffolk, by the use of women, including soldiers' wives, and young people, and by the continuing prevalence of tailoring outwork in the clothing industry. In skilled men formed a branch of the Tailors' Protection Society and in were connected with the Amalgamated Society of Tailors.
Shoemakers were organized long before and in they gained a wage increase from most employers. In the same year local carpenters, aware that building workers could command higher wages in London, successfully went on strike for more pay.
The Colchester United Assistants' Association was formed in and its efforts together with middle class support achieved a gradual reduction in the opening hours of shops. The poorly paid girls at the silk factory in St. Peter's Street between and occasionally took industrial action but with little result in a declining industry.
Skilled workers were usually better organized. A small local branch of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners was formed in by John Howe, but it functioned more like a friendly society than a union, with no rules about strike pay. Although there was a dispute in the engineering industry in , a branch of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers was not established until , probably because of the paternalism of James Paxman at the Standard ironworks and Joseph Blomfield at the Britannia works.
Factory work brought changes in working practices and the possibility of greater control by employers, but also provided better opportunities for workers to promote trade unionism. By workers at three of the largest factories were summoned to work and dismissed by a steam whistle, a sign of changing work patterns.
Union membership declined between and , mainly because of economic recession but also because of political divisions in the labour movement. Most Colchester trade unionists were not militant, and disputes were few. The dispute at Kavanagh's boot factory, caused by his imposition of fines for lateness and absenteeism, resulted in union blacklisting of his firm. Knopp's was able to modernize its working practices in a less threatening fashion.
The strike ended when the speediator resigned, as had happened in a similar dispute three months earlier at Hoffman's in Chelmsford. The Paxman's strikers were commended for their orderly behaviour, and many of them felt that the strike could have been avoided if the paternalistic James Paxman had not been ill at the time. Trade unions were able to negotiate wage rises and improved conditions in the days of full employment, high food prices, and inflation during the First World War, and immediately afterwards.
A hour week was agreed for council manual employees in , but a few months later tramways employees were apparently conceded an extra 4 s. Even after James Paxman's death in his firm retained much of his personal style. Employers responded to growing trade unionism by forming their own organizations.
Colchester Chamber of Commerce was founded in , encouraged by E. Barritt, a dispensing chemist, one of the many mayors who were active businessmen. The Second World War, like the First, brought full employment and further state intervention in industry, and was a great stimulus to the town's manufacturing industries.
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Modern 3-level public house serving a vast array of craft beer and ales plus slow- cooked American-style BBQ food. Live music & function room hire available. Opening hours. Monday. 9am to pm. Tuesday. 9am to pm. Wednesday. 9am to pm. Thursday. 9am to pm. Friday. 9am to pm. Saturday. Get Colchester's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Sunday, October 28, — Daylight Saving Time Ends. Clocks move backward 1 hour.