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Natural history of skin prick test reactivity. A total of individuals, aged 7 to 17 years, were randomly selected in and invited to 4 examinations during a year period. During each examination, a skin prick test was performed using common local Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test. The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test SPT.

The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance.

The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status. Studies have shown that filaggrin gene FLG mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test SPT reactions as well as the number of positive reactions To investigate the effect of FLG mutations on the mean size and the number of positive SPT reactions, as well as the association with positive specific IgE.

A random sample of adults from the general population in Denmark was genotyped for the RX and del4 mutations in the FLG The positive association seen in patients must be explained by a combination of further barrier abnormality caused by dermatitis as well as increased allergen exposure Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests.

As oral allergy syndrome OAS symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test SPT as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles.

Chronic idiopathic urticaria CIU and atopic dermatitis AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process.

Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising SPT reaction was positive with food items The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts.

Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing SPT.

The aim of this study. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges. The skin prick test — European standards.

Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature.

A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel Corylus avellana, alder Alnus incana, birch Betula alba, plane Platanus vulgaris, cypress Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive Olea europaea, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach Blatella germanica.

Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms.

The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Among 40 patients, 18 Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens.

Chin J Ophthalmol, , The incidence and features of systemic reactions to skin prick tests. Skin prick testing SPT has been regarded as a safe procedure with few systemic reactions. To evaluate the rate of systemic reactions and their associations after SPT in the largest population to date. In this study reactions were recorded prospectively in a specialist UK allergy clinic for 6 years An estimated 31, patients underwent SPT.

Twenty-four patients age range 7 months to 56 years, mean The rate of systemic reactions to SPT was 0. The likely allergens causing the reaction were foods 18; peanut, 7; walnut, 1; Brazil nut, 2; pistachio, 1; lupin, 1; cow's milk, 2; shrimp, 1; spinach, 1; legume, 1; soy, 1 , aeroallergens 4; rabbit, 1; rat, 1; ragwort, 1; grass pollen, 1 , wasp venom 1 , and Tazocin 1.

The reaction to Tazocin was severe, with anaphylaxis occurring minutes after SPT. Reactions were treated immediately in the clinic and did not require further medical care. In this largest single-center study, the rate of systemic reactions after SPT was 77 per , patients.

There was an association with a history of severe reactions and large skin test reaction. There are risks, albeit small, when undertaking SPT. Published by Elsevier Inc. Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test SPT with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased.

Of the patients, 73 Sensitization to chrysalis was dete Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy. Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test SPT is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts.

SPT with the following fruit were performed: We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at degrees C. Results were read by planimetry Inmunotek prick-film after 15 minutes. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases.

Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test , skin prick test , histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple.

The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test SPT , scratch-chamber test SCT , histamine release HR and specific immunoglobulin E IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. Ten birch-allergic patients with oral Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients.

The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test SPT and specific immunoglobulin E sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays.

HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive cases and negative control subjects SPT results had similar bioactivities.

However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results.

Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study.

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Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test , skin prick test , histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test SPT , scratch-chamber test SCT , histamine release HR and specific immunoglobulin E IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple.

Ten birch-allergic patients with oral Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients. The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test SPT and specific immunoglobulin E sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA.

HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive cases and negative control subjects SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results.

Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Published by Mosby, Inc. Skin prick test results in patients with atopic symptoms in Yozgat district. Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test SPT is used widely and fastly to determine the allergens in atopic disease.

We aimed in this study to analysis the relationship between total serum IgE T. IgE and allergens that found by SPT and looking over the frequency of allergens. We evaluated clinical findings and SPT results and T.

IgE levels of patients who admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic, retrospectively. The most common allergens were pine pollen The mean levels of T. IgE is higher It was seen that DPT positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with increased T.

The study was carried out on 60 bakers working at different bakeries at Dekernis, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt; and 30 control subjects. All participants were submitted to a self administered questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, general medical examination, chest examination; spirometry and SPT. Subjective diagnostic test of food allergy is hugely biased, resulting in irrational diet avoidance.

Additional objective tools by skin prick test following food provocation test resulting more accurate cause and prevalence on population. To evaluate the compatibility of clinical symptoms with skin prick test and provocation test for imunoglobulin E IgE mediated food allergy in Dr.

Cross sectional observational analytic study. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during the birch pollen season in and , respectively. VASt scores of fresh apples did not differ significantly from stored apples, except in Golden Delicious spring [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants]. Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test.

This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food s in clinic.

The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test , including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table.

In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve ROC was plotted and area under the curve AUC was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the children, open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. The AUC of mean diameter was 0. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter.

Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system. Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing.

We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. Food allergies in children: Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions.

Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Results We collected data from subjects aged years.

For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Kappa coefficient are all poor 0. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic.

Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy. In this study we report on pattern of allergy prick skin test results found among atopic patients attending the department of otorhinolargngology of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu and Hansa Clinics, Enugu and propose ways of minimizing the exposure of the population to allergens.

Diagnosis of mold allergy by RAST and skin prick testing. Sera from 33 patients with mold allergy proven by bronchial provocation were analyzed for specific IgE against six mold species comparing an improved Phadebas RAST with four other techniques. The new method was more sensitive and gave significantly higher IgE antibody concentrations for all tested molds except Cladosporium herbarum. Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases.

Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema AE , allergic rhinitis and asthma. Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.

However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet.

Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians.

Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold.

On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults.

We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. Identification of common allergens for united airway disease by skin prick test. Identification of common allergens by skin prick test in patients of united airway disease. Skin prick test was performed in 60 patients of United Airway Disease to identify the common allergens. A total of 62 allergens consisting of 36 types of pollen, 5 fungi, 4 insects, 8 type of dusts, 4 dander, 3 fabrics, Dust mite and Parthenium leaves were tested.

Common pollens were Ricinus communis Common dust allergens were house dust Among fabrics kapok cotton In animal dander group common ones were cat dander followed by dog dander. In conclusion it can be said that the knowledge drawn by above study will help to treat patients by immunotherapy or avoidance strategy. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

Chronic spontaneous urticaria CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. The prevalence of positive ASST was Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded.

A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August and 1 August , in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents.

Overall, children aged years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in This rate was found to be Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test SPT and specific immunoglobulin E sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass.

Methods 70 subjects 41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls 13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge OFC with cereals and peanut.

Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E IgE tests , radio-allergosorbent test RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST.

Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal Children aged from 2 months to 6 years were recruited prospectively.

Overall children were positive to one food. If SPT and sIgE test results did not correspond to the history, we performed open oral food challenge. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests , intradermal test , titrated SPT and Ig Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries.

When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing. The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed.

SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. ConclusionThese reading keys' for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance.

Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity. In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria.

In this cross-sectional study, patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Among patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males.

The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite HDM Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens.

Before and after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, atopic predisposition, and pet keeping, no significant Evaluation of the frequency of food allergens based on skin prick test in children in Kurdistan Province - Iran.

Food allergy refers to abnormal reactions of the body caused by an immune system response to food. This study was conducted aiming to investigate allergy to food allergens in children with food allergies. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional one on children aged six months to seven years with food allergies admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan Province - Iran, during All the patients were examined for skin prick test using 49 allergens. Finally, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS15 and chi-square and t tests.

The highest percentage of occurrence of bump reaction wheal and redness flare was due to the consumption of fish, eggs, tomatoes, and cocoa. Moreover, the lowest rate of wheal and flare was caused by exposure to allergens like latex, tea, malt, and wheat flour. The reaction most created due to the consumption of foods was flare which was higher among under three-year-olds group p Histamine skin-prick test: Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation.

In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase DAO is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus.

Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick- test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance.

Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction.

Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data at birth, age 4, 10, 18 ; skin prick test SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected.

Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios PRs. Results Of the participants, birth order information was available for The prevalence of atopy sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs and birth order on SPT.

Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene. Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes.

Questionnaire data at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure.

After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e. A small smart phone based thermo camera FLIR One was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots.

The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site.

The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

Study of the thickness evolution during SPT Testing. Full Text Available The Small Punch Test SPT is an increasingly expanding test used to obtain different mechanical data, such as strength, fracture, creep, etc…especially when there is little material available. However, the SPT test is more complicated than the uniaxial tensile test due to its non-linearity, which makes it difficult to relate the data obtained with the tensile tests.

In fact, in the literature there is no clear model linking these tests and a different calibration should be used for each material. The complication of the SPT test is that the reduction of the sample thickness is not homogeneous in its gauge volume.

In this work we proceeded to determine the variation of the SPT specimen thickness at several points, especially at the center and at the rupture zone, by means of the use of finite elements in COMSOL, taking a SLM AM selective laser melting additive manufactured L stainless steel as the base material for modelling. For the appropriate modelling in COMSOL, the mechanical parameters of two L extreme thermomechanical treatments have been implemented, one annealed to a minimum hardness and another heavily work-hardened.

The sample thickness variation results allow advancing in the theoretical modeling of the SPT behavior in order to obtain more accurate correlations with tensile tests data.

Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients. The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test SPT allergens required to identify a patient.

The prevalence of skin- test -positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults. It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test SPT -positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen Diagnoses of SPT -positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens.

The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis.

Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg Empirical correlations based on in situ SPT data provide an important basis for assessment of a broad range of engineering parameters, and for empirically based analysis and design methods spanning a significant number of areas of geotechnical practice.

Despite this longstanding record of usage, the test itself is relatively poorly standardized with regard to the allowable variab Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in sub tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing , and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country.

Schoolchildren aged years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests SPT and specific IgE sIgE against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the children included, The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing.

Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms.

There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. Approved for public release; distribution. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart. Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions.

The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from We found a declining prevalence of sensitization To investigate the clinical application of glass micro fiber basophil activation test BAT used as a complementary test for house dust mite allergen. The sensitivity and specificity of glass micro fiber BAT were The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin.

BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines leptin and adiponectin on the immune system.

ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases wit A guide to performing skin-prick testing in practice: Cats, dogs and other animals with fur. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have suggested that the atopy patch test APT may make oral challenge superfluous in diagnosing children with food hypersensitivity.

To investigate the clinical relevance of APT in predicting hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected Food hypersensitivity confirmed by oral challenge was 1.

No hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was predicted by APT alone. Thus, APT cannot be recommended in daily practice for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg Immunotherapy is the only recognized causal treatment for allergies. It is prepared on an individual basis, based on the patient's clinical history and the result of the skin prick test SPT. An adequate composition of the allergens with which to test the patient is crucial for an optimal diagnosis.

To know allergens used in tests in allergy practices in Mexico. In a second phase respondents were asked to send in the composition of a routine SPT in their clinic.

The results are presented descriptively and the frequency is calculated by which certain allergen is tested in the interviewed practices. Weeds' representation in the SPT seems adequate; Atriplex is tested in all allergy practices. House dust and tobacco are still tested with certain frequency. The selection of which allergens to test in a SPT is based on multiple data, that change continuously with new investigations and discoveries.

Our specialty is the most indicated--and obligated--to adjust constantly to these changes to have the best diagnostic tool to detect specific allergies.

The results presented in this paper demonstrate thruster discharge initiation, open-loop and closed-loop control of the discharge current with anode flow for both the HiVHAc and the SPT thrusters.

Integrated tests with the SPT thruster indicated that the PPU was able to repeatedly initiate the thrusters discharge, achieve steady state operation, and successfully throttle the thruster between 1. To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test SPT allergens required to identify a patient Among the patients involved, Overall, eight allergens grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria allowed to identified more than However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland grass pollen and cat dander as opposed to nine for France grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. All participants underwent skin prick tests SPT to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent.

Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. Tests for sensitisation in occupational medicine practice--the soy bean example. To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to soy bean measured by specific IgE and skin prick tests SPTs and to examine the association between evidence of sensitisation to soy bean allergens and symptoms of allergic disease.

A venous blood sample was taken for specific IgE testing , and SPTs for common allergens and soy bean dust were performed. A volunteer sample of 22 workers exposed to soy bean dust; the first 20 non-exposed workers presenting to the National Centre for Occupational Health clinic formed the control group.

Immunological tests for sensitisation and symptoms of respiratory and allergic disease. Eight of the exposed workers had positive skin reactions to either full-fat or defatted soy bean. None of the controls was SPT -positive. Eight of the exposed workers had increased levels of soy-specific IgE of whom only 4 were SPT -positive and had an increased level of soy-specific IgE.

One of the control workers had an increased level of soy-specific IgE. Workers with an increased specific IgE or SPT positive to soy bean did not have more symptoms than workers with negative tests.

However, work-related breathlessness was significantly higher in the exposed group P soy bean-related disease but that tests for sensitisation were linked to exposure. Evaluation of basophil activation test in suspected food hypersensitivity.

Food hypersensitivity is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, three major tasks started in were fulfilled: Design projects for these tasks are almost finished and the reconstruction of both systems is expected to be finished until and mid respectively. Investments in were used for kg of heavy water, maintenance of reactor systems and supply of new components, reconstruction of reactor systems.

This report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues [sr. This Annex 7 includes diagrams about RA reactor operation MWh from ; mean values of reactor power per day and month in , and percent of utilisation of experimental space during Determination of the four natural Ra isotopes in thermal waters by gamma-ray spectrometry.

The calculation of Ra and Ra activities requires interference and cascade summing corrections. The short-lived Ra and Ra are probably added to the water through recoil or desorption processes from Th-enriched coatings on the fracture walls. Determination of Ra and Ra in sediments samples by liquid scintillation counting.

An experimental procedure has been developed for a rapid determination of the activity concentration of Ra and Ra in sediments by liquid scintillation counting. The importance of the method lies in its application to the measurement of sediments where the Ra -isotopes activity concentration has been increased due to an anthropomorphic enhancement based on releases of naturally occurring radioactive material NORM. A sample pre-treatment, including a digestion with aqua regia and a precipitation of hydroxides, was applied to samples before the radium extraction, which was made by co-precipitation with barium.

The procedure has been applied to the measurement of riverbed sediments from an estuary in the south-west of Spain, affected in the past by direct and indirect phosphogypsum discharges. After regular shutdown in November , inspection of the fuel elements from the RA reactor core which was done from December - February has shown that there are deposits of aluminium oxides on the surface of the fuel cladding.

After restart The RA reactor was operated at power levels from 1. It was found that there was no corrosion of the fuel element cladding and that it was not possible to find the cause of surface deposition on the cladding surfaces without further operation.

It was decided to purify the heavy water permanently during operation and to increase the heavy water flow by operating two pumps. This procedure was adopted in order to decrease the possibility of corrosion.

The Safety committee of the Institute has approved this procedure for operating the RA reactor in The objective of the measurements was determining the neutron flux in the RA reactor core. Since the number of fuel channels is increased from 56 to 68 within the VISA-2 project, it was necessary to attain criticality of the RA reactor and measure the neutron flux properties. The 'program of RA reactor start-up' has been prepared separately and it is included in this report.

Measurements were divided in two phases. First phase was measuring of the neutron flux after the criticality was achieved but at zero power. During phase two measurements were repeated at several power levels, at equilibrium xenon poisoning. This report includes experimental data of flux distributions and absolute values of the thermal and fast neutron flux in the RA reactor experimental channels and values of cadmium ratio for determining the neutron epithermal flux.

Data related to calibration of regulatory rods for cold un poisoned core are included [sr. During , the RA Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6. Total production mounted to MWh which is 5. Reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of users, of which from the Institute and 55 external users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in Discrepancies from the action plan, meaning higher production was achieved in June and December due to special demand of the users.

Total number of interruptions was lower than during all the previous years, and were caused mainly due to power cuts during reactor operation. There was no longer interruption caused by failures of the equipment. There was only on scram shutdown during this year caused by a false signal of the reactor control instrumentation. Shorter interruptions resulted from breaking of connectors in the technical water pipe system caused by soil sliding near the pumping station on the Danube.

Total personnel exposure dose was lower than during previous years. There was no accident nor any event that could be called accidental. Decontamination od surfaces was less than during previous years. It was concluded that the successful operation in resulted from efficient work during past years. But, some of the activities were interrupted due to undefined policy concerned with operation of the RA reactor and financial issues.

This involves study of the possibility to use highly enriched fuel that would increase the useful neutron flux and the reactor compatibility with similar reactors for the future ten years. Another project that has been interrupted is construction of the emergency core cooling system which is important for the reactor safety.

Financial problems have influenced not only the reactor operation but the number of employees, which could cause negative.

Growth retardation in children injected with Ra. We have obtained the adult heights of patients formerly injected with Ra as juveniles. A radiochemical method for Ra determination by alpha-particle spectrometry in environmental samples has been developed in our laboratory.

The method has been validated by measurements in samples with known concentrations of this radionuclide and it has been applied in studies related to Ra behaviour in phosphogypsum the main by-product of producing phosphoric acid from phosphate rocks. Interstitial lung disease ILD has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades.

Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia UIP pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis IPF.

In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA -UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA -ILD and the prognostic implications of same.

We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA -ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. The concentrations range from 0. The effectiveness of additives nitric acid or EDTA in keeping the Ra in solution in the samples is discussed.

The report on RA reactor operation and maintenance for year is divided in six tasks. This volume contains the introductory report, and three tasks of the final report, namely reactor exploitation, reactivity changes of the RA reactor before repair, planning of refuelling. The study of Ra concentration in Teheran's pasteurized milk.

A study of 88 Ra concentration in pasteurized milk distributed in Tehran during was accomplished. The Ash resulting from the milk was 4. These results are compared with the Ra concentration in France and Puerto Rico. Reproduction of the RA reactor fuel element fabrication. Recovery of Ra from natural thorium irradiated by protons. Russian Federation ; Kalmykov, Stepan N. Radiochemical procedure is based on liquid-liquid extraction, cation exchange and extraction chromatography.

The procedure provides separation of radium from spallation and fission products generated in the thorium target. Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia.

We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material TENORM in the Brazilian petroleum industry, the present work presents the chemical composition and the Ra and Ra content of sludge and scales generated during the offshore E and P petroleum activities in the Campos Basin, the primary offshore oil production region in Brazil.

The Ra and Ra content on 36 sludge and scales samples were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, a chemical analysis schema for these samples was developed. On the other hand, sludge samples have a much more complex chemical composition than the scales. The Ra and Ra content in sludge also varies much more than the content observed in the scales samples and ranged from 0.

This volume covers the following reports concerned with the maintenance and repair work of the RA reactor: Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed.

Calculated Ra fluxes of waters, in drainage ditches associated with these controlled ponds, for Ra ranged from 0. Ra activity gradients were measured beneath these controlled ponds both in agricultural landscapes and in constructed wetlands, all being associated with drainage ditches. Ra had infiltrated to the local water table but was below regulatory maximum contaminant limits.

Still, measurable Ra activity was measured downgradient of even the constructed wetlands in the Kankakee watershed, suggesting that the attenuation of Ra was low. However, no Ra excess was observed in the riparian zone or the Kankakee River downgradient of the native wetland ponds. RA reactor exploitation, task 3.

During the RA reactor was operated for hours at mean power of 5. Reactor was used for irradiation according to the demand of users, and 15 experiments. The reason for decreased operation in comparison with the previous year was repair of all the reactor equipment and decontamination of the heavy water system. This report contains detailed data about reactor power, reactivity changes and fuel burnup. Mean monthly usage of the reactor experimental channels as well as samples which were irradiated are part of this report.

RA research reactor - properties and experimental capabilities; Istrazivacki reaktor RA - Tehnicke karakteristike i eksploatacione mogucnosti. The results of efforts spent on reactor characteristics improvement in order to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation for next years, are described.

Prikazani su fragmenti iz eksploatacije reaktora kao i stanje opreme, posle 18 godina rada. Na kraju je dat prikaz sta je preduzeto i sta se preduzima da se poboljsaju karakteristike i poveca sigurnost i bezbednost rada za sledecih godina.

A special experimental device was constructed for measuring the neutron flux distribution in the RA reactor cell. This device simulated the reactor cell in order to avoid disturbance in the reactor core.

It was made of an aluminium cylindrical vessel having outer diameter same as the vertical experimental channel and contained three fuel slugs.

Hole was made in through the center of the fuel slugs and a copper wire was placed in the hole for measuring the thermal neutron flux distribution.

It was placed in the experimental channel VK-5 in the location of highest neutron flux. Handling of samples for irradiation was quite simple. This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. Hydroxyapatite particles as carriers for "2"2"3 Ra.

Two different approaches to HAP labelling were tested: Kinetics of "2"2"3 Ra sorption on HAP of different particle size and desorption in 0. It was found that the optimal conditions for the sorption included synthesis of HAP nanoparticles in the presence of "2"2"3 Ra at pH values of followed by annealing at deg C. In this paper, we present analytical models that allow the characterization of Lo Ra WAN end-device current consumption, lifetime and energy cost of data delivery.

Among others, evaluation results show that an appropriately configured Lo Ra WAN end-device platform powered by a battery of mAh can achieve a 1-year lifetime while sending one message every 5 min, and an asymptotic theoretical lifetime of 6 years for infrequent communication. Behavior of Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone.

The behavior of Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongly nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that reported for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate.

The Ra desorption maximum occurs at a salinity of 5. High concentrations of dissolved Ra up to 82 dpm per L and the low salinity values for the desorption maximum in the Mississippi River result from three major factors. Suspended sediments include a large fraction of montmorillonite, which gives the sediment a high cation exchange capacity, 0.

The dissolved Ra river water end-member 9. The annual contribution of Ra to the ocean from the Mississippi River is 3. Evidence of flux of Ra from estuarine and shelf sediments is common in vertical profile sampling of the deltaic waters but is not reflected in calculations made with an "apparent" river water Ra value extrapolated to zero salinity.

Given the popularity of Lo Ra it is likely that multiple independent Lo Ra networks are deployed in close proximity. In this situation, neighbouring networks interfere and methods have to be found to combat this interference. In this paper we investigate the use of directional antennae and the use of multiple base stations as methods of dealing with inter-network interference. According to the plan, RA reactor was to be in operation in mid September But, since the building of the emergency cooling system, nor the reconstruction of the existing special ventilation system were not finished until the end of August reactor was not operated during During the previous four years reactor operation was limited by the temporary operating license issued by the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care, which was cancelled in August The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system.

This temporary license has limited the reactor power to 2 MW from Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts.

In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, during , three major tasks have started: Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis RA patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients.

The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis RA patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings.

Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic CT findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states 10 RA , 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent , focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions.

The pathological findings of 18 patients 8 RA , 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings.

The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation GGA were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction.

Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups.

Concentrations and activity ratios of Ra and Ra in surface seawater along the Pacific coast of Japan. The activity ratios decreased with increasing salinity of the sampling sites. The surface salinity along the coast decreased from summer into autumn and increased from winter to the beginning of spring.

The activity ratios decreased with the increase of salinity. The variation in activity ratios at the three coastal sites is possibly caused by differing contributions of surface seawater from the Kuroshio and surrounding open ocean.

Development of a liquid scintillation method for in vitro determination of Ra and Ra in bioassay samples. Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. The intake of Ra and Ra in humans can occur by inhalation and ingestion and the risk of internal exposure are related to their long half-lives, characteristics of the emission and biokinetics of the isotopes in the human body.

The goal of this work is to develop a methodology for the analysis of Ra and Ra in excreta samples urine and feces , using liquid scintillation technique. Excreta samples were provided by non-exposed humans for the purpose of standardizing the methodology and the establishment of a background level of radium excretion. Radium isotopes were concentrated and separated from the constituents of the sample by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The precipitate of Ba Ra SO 4 was filtrated and weighted for the determination of the chemical yield.

The filter containing the precipitate was transferred to a scintillation vial. In the scintillation vial, 8 mL of water, 8 mL of Instagel XF and 4 mL of UltimaGold were added, forming a gel suspension, after stirring the solution. The Ra and Ra activities were determined 21 days after the precipitation of samples.

The samples were counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The technique presented adequate sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of urine and feces. The activities of Ra and Ra in excreta samples provide useful information for the identification of the main route of intake and for the assessment of the internal exposure of occupationally exposed workers and inhabitants of high background areas.

The Sun for Science and Humanity. To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development.

For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements.

Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework.

These were to identify and investigate: The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft.

A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections.

The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions. Total production mounted to MWh which is 3. Reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of users from the Institute and 63 external users.

It is concluded that the reactor operated successfully according to the plan. If there had been no problems with power supply during last three months and Danube low water level in September and October the past year would have been the most successful up to now. The number od scram shutdowns was not higher than during past two years in spite of the difficulties in the last quarter.

There were three incidents which caused higher personnel exposure during operation. One, was the destruction of the canner with silver because the time spent in the core was too long which caused the surface contamination of the platform, the background radiation was 10 to times higher than regular. The other two cases were caused by failure of the device for handling the fuel slugs in the fuel channels during refuelling.

Reactor refuelling was done four times during , and fresh fuel slugs were used. Refuelling applied the approach of 'mixing' the fresh fuel slugs with the 'old' fuel slugs in the fuel channel. Decontamination of surfaces was on the same level as previously in spite of the problems with silver. Since two staff members have left, the present number od employees is now the minimum needed for reactor operation and maintenance. It is stated that the operation of components and equipment is on sufficiently high level after ten years of reactor operation.

The action plan for is made according to the same principles as in previous four years but the planned production is decreased to MWh, because control of important components is needed after ten. Safety shutdowns and failures of the RA reactor equipment; Sigurnosna zaustavljanja i kvarovi opreme na reaktoru RA.

This report is an attempt of statistical analysis of the failures occurred during RA reactor operation. A list of failures occurred on the RA equipment during is included. Failures were related to the following systems: A review of safety shutdowns from to is included as well, as a comparison with three similar reactors.

Although the number of events used for statistical analysis was not adequate, it has been concluded that RA reactor operation was stable and reliable. The rapid mode of calcium uptake into heart mitochondria Ra M: The existence and properties of Ra M in heart mitochondria, however, are unknown and are the basis for this study.

We show that Ra M functions in heart mitochondria with some of the characteristics of Ra M in liver, but its activation and inhibition are quite different. It is feasible that these differences represent different physiological adaptations in these two tissues. Ra M in heart is strongly inhibited by AMP and has a biphasic response to ADP; it is activated at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations.

Finally, an hypothesis consistent with the data and characteristics of liver and heart is presented to explain how Ra M may function to control the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in each tissue. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using Ra and Ra as tracers.

Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January to August ; additional porewater samples were collected in August Surface water activities ranged from ??

L- 1 for Ra and Ra , respectively. Porewater Ra activities ranged from ?? L- 1 and ?? L- 1 , while porewater Ra activities ranged from ?? Combining these data with a simple box model provided average Ra -based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from ?? L m- 2 d- 1 and average Ra -derived fluxes of ?? L m- 2 d- 1 Winnapaug Pond , ??

L m- 2 d- 1 Quonochontaug Pond , ?? L m- 2 d- 1 Ninigret Pond , ?? L m- 2 d- 1 Green Hill Pond , and ?? These Ra -derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra -based SGD studies in Rhode Island.

This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. High Ra , high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous.

Unstable layer Instability Convection. The distribution of Ra in the Atlantic Ocean. Outside the Antarctic no significant variation has been found in the Ra content of surface waters. Eighty samples yield an average of 7. These excesses correlate well with deficiencies in O 2 and excesses in SiO 2. The intermediate water Ra maximum in the South Atlantic is associated with the inflow of low-oxygen Circumpolar Intermediate Water beneath the Antarctic Intermediate Water.

During the mining and extraction of uranium, the principle means of protection measurement is to prevent uranium and its products diffusing into the environment. The main carriers of radioactive elements in the environment are air and water. Therefore, reduction of the pollution at a uranium mine can be achieved by the treatment of waste waters contaminated with Ra Radium contaminated waste waters represent a major biological risk.

This paper presents the results of the study of the sorption of Ra on active coal mechanisme and the influence of the physical and chemical characteristics of fluid. The Ra removal from the residue pond water at the uranium ore processing plant was studied using eight types of indigenous active coals.

The experimental results for each type of active coal and their effect on removal of Ra from waste waters are presented in this paper. Radiosensitivity and thermoresistance of rat RA -2 rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The data obtained show that clonogenic RA -2T cells are times more thermoresistant than clonogenic cells of the original thermosensitive RA -2T strain as estimated by D 0 value upon heating up to deg C.

In all appearance, within one and the same tumor cell population, the hereditarily thermoresistant cells are more radioresistant than the thermosensitive ones. RA reactor operation and maintenance in , Part 1. During Ra reactor was not in operation. All the activities were fulfilled according to the previously adopted plan. Basic activities were concerned with revitalisation of the RA reactor and maintenance of reactor components.

All the reactor personnel was busy with reconstruction and renewal of the existing reactor systems and building of the new systems, maintenance of the reactor devices. Part of the staff was trained for relevant tasks and maintenance of reactor systems [sr. Large amounts of solid wastes tailings resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeirica mine north of Portugal have been accumulated in dams tailing ponds.

To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus Eucalyptus globolus and pines Pinus pinea. Besides, some shrubs Cytisus s. The objective of this study is to determine the Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings through the quantification of the total and available fraction of radium in the solid wastes and to estimate its transfer to the plants growing on the tailing piles.

Plants and solid waste samples were randomly collected at dams. Activity concentration of Ra in plants aerial part and roots and solid wastes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained for the Ra uptake by plants show that Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low Ra concentration in the solid wastes and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations.

For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of The Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, within the standard error values, more consistent Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams.

Radon protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: Each category is described as a separate annex of this report. On the octupole deformation in Ra -Th region. The problem of the existence of a stable octupole deformation in Ra -Th region has been reinvestigated using a Nilsson single-particle potential with a newly fitted set of parameters, which reproduce the spins of the ground states of odd-A nuclei.

In the energy surfaces, calculated for Ra and Th, the octupole deformed minima, separated by the barriers of KeV and keV, respectively, have been obtained.

Radioactive decay of Ra by 14C emission. Jones at the University of Oxford reported the very difficult observation of an exotic radioactive decay mode in Ra , its spontaneous disintegration by the emission of 14 C particles. The authors have confirmed their somewhat surprising discovery by an independent method. Within the present experimental accuracy the magnetic rigidity, energy and branching ratio support the assignment of 14 C emission from Ra as proposed by the Oxford experiment.

Kinetic parameters of the RB and RA reactors. In the paper the expressions for transfer functions of the zero power reactors, as well as power reactors of the RA reactor type are given, based on the space independent model. The modulation method for reactor transfer function measurements is explained. The results of the measurement and interpretation are given.

Communications programme for the RA nuclear reactor decommission. During the decommissioning of the RA research nuclear reactor at the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, an adequate number of radiation and contamination surveys should be conduced to assure radiological safety of the workers, the public and the environment.

Public would like to know more about the nuclear and radiological safety. The communications programme defines the ways to informing the public, its representatives and the information media about the health and safety aspects of the activities during the RA nuclear reactor decommission. Effective Ra -content of some Hungarian building materials. The aim of the work was to analyse the effective Ra content of building- and back filling materials used in Hungary.

The quantity of radon was determined by ionization chambers connected to vibrating-reed electrometers, as well as by a scintillation radon counter. The radon measuring instruments were calibrated by known Rn quantities given off from standard Ra Cl 2 solutions. The effective Ra content measurements are well suited for a priori radon escape qualification of building materials.

Argonne-Utah studies of Ra endosteal surface dosimetry. The activities of Pb relative to Ra and of Rn relative to Ra were measured in bone surface deposits 24 h after radium injection into beagles. The fractional retention of Rn atoms was measured in vitro with hydrated and dehydrated bone samples to determine the effect of water content on the escape of radon from bone surfaces.

The experimental data suggest that substantial Ra daughter product disequilibrium exists in bone surface deposits. Rahman, this retail store representative connected with Nuts Oats Economy concerning Broadway and also 89th Neighborhood, may not brain the particular tax burden.

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