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Browse the Encyclopedia by clicking on any of the letters below. The sixteenth letter of the English and Greek alphabets, and the seventeenth of the Hebrew, in which last-mentioned language its numerical value is 80, is formed thus 9, signifying a mouth in the Phenician. The sacred name of God associated with this letter is in Hebrew , Phodeh or Redeemer.

The Peruvian name for the Creator and Ruler of the universe. Founder of the Venezuelan Republic, was born of Indian parentage near Acarigua, June 13, , prominent in the struggle for independence against Spain from to and in effected the secession of Venezuela from the Republic of Colombia and became its first president, to , serving again in to , dictator in Headed a revolution and was imprisoned but released in and in was Minister to the United States.

He died in New York, May 6, A general appellation for the religious worship of the whole human race, except of that portion which has embraced Christianity, Judaism, or Mohammedanism.

Its interest to the Masonic student arises from the fact that its principal development was the ancient mythology, in whose traditions and mysteries are to be found many interesting analogies with the Masonic system see Dispensations of Religion. A political writer of eminence during the Revolutionary War in America. He greatly injured his reputation by his attacks on the Christian religion. He was not a Freemason, but wrote An Essay on the Origin of Freemasonry, with no other knowledge of the Institution than that derived from the writings of Smith and Dodd, and the very questionable authority of Prichard's Masonry Dissected.

He sought to trace Freemasonry to the Celtic Druids. For one so little acquainted with his subject, he has treated it with considerable ingenuity. Paine was born in England in , and died in New York, in Paine's acquaintance with prominent Freemasons on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean has doubtless had much to do with the claim often made for his membership in the Craft.

A meeting with Brother Franklin in London obtained for him introductions to the leaders in the Colonies and he sailed there in where he became editor of the Pennsylvania Gazette. He published, , Common Sense, an argument for a republic. Then he served on the staff of General Greene and wrote pamphlets entitled the Crisis, his opening words, "These are the times that try men's souls" sounding powerfully then and later in days of turmoil.

In England after the war he was indicted for treason, escaping to France, and there narrowly escaped the guillotine, spending ten months in prison. Then he attacked Washington bitterly, came to the United States, but while his services to the country were gratefully remembered, his blunt discourtesy to the President and other old friends could not be forgotten.

Conway wrote a biography of him which says that the preface to his essay on Freemasonry was probably written by his devoted friend, Colonel John Fellows.

It was conquered from the Canaanites by the Hebrews under Joshua years B. They divided it into twelve Confederate States according to the Tribes. Saul united it into one kingdom, and David enlarged its territories. With Palestine, or the Holy Land, the mythical, if not the authentic, history of Freemasonry has been closely connected. There stood, at one time, the Temple of Solomon, to which some writers have traced the origin of the Masonic Order; there fought the Crusaders, among whom other writers have sought, with equal boldness, to find the cradle of the Fraternity; there certainly the Order of the Templars was instituted, whose subsequent history has been closely mingled with that of Freemasonry; and there occurred nearly all the events of sacred history that, with the places where they were enacted, have been adopted as important Masonic symbols.

The desire to obtain an accurate knowledge of the archeology of Palestine, gave rise in to an association, which was permanently organized in London, as the Palestine Ezploration Fund, with the Queen as the chief patron, and a long list of the nobility and the most distinguished gentlemen in the kingdom, added to which followed the Grand Lodge of England and forty-two subordinate and provincial Grand Lodges and Chapters- Early in the year the Committee began the work of examination, by mining in and about the various points which had been determined upon by a former survey as essential to a proper understanding of the ancient city, which had been covered up by debris from age to age, so that the present profiles of the ground, in every direction, were totally different from what they were in the days of David and Solomon, or even in the time of Christ- Lieutenant Charles Warren, R.

He arrived in Jerusalem February 17, , and continued his labors of excavating in many parts of the city, with some interruptions, until , when he returned to England. During his operations, he kept the Society in London constantly informed of the progress of the work in which he and his associates were so zealously engaged, in a majority of eases at the imminent risk of their lives and always that of their health. The result of these labors has been a vast accumulation of facts in relation to the topography of the holy city which throw much light on its archaeology.

A branch of the Society has been established in the United States of America, and continued in successful operation. Mentioned by Baron de Tschoudy, and said to have been the fountain whence the Chevalier Ramsay obtained the information for the regulation of his system.

An altar-cloth, also a canopy borne over the head of royalty in Oriental lands. Such reference books as are most often consuited in public libraries say little more about Andrea Palladio than that he was an Italian architect, of Venice, born in , died in , that he was one of the creators of the Italian, or neo-Classical style, that he wrote treatises on his art, and that he seas called "the modern Vitruvius.

Paul's but more than a hundred other buildings, a few of them in America. That ferment of interest in the Italian, or, as it was popularly called, Classical style, may well have helped to prepare the way for the renaissance of Speculative Freemasonry, and Palladion as the original source of that interest. James Anderson "wrote" the and editions of the Book of Constitutions for the Mother Grand Lodge of but it is impossible to discover who was responsible for the materials in either; perhaps many Brethren were; whoever it was he or they makes it clear in the edition that Freemasonry mas in the Craft's mind, twenty-one years after the formation of Grand Lodge, still identified closely with architectures for he goes out of his way to remark that, "In the last Reign sundry of the 50 new Churches in the Suburbs of London were built in a fine Stile upon the Parliamentary Fund, particularly the b beautiful St.

An androgynous society, both sexes, of Masonic adoption, established, says Ragon, at Paris in It made great pretensions to high antiquity, claiming that it had its origin in the instructions brought by Pythagoras from Egypt into Greece, and having fallen into decay after the decline of the Roman Empire, it was revived in by Fenelon, Archbishop of Canbray; all of which is altogether mythical.

Fenelon was not born until It was a very moral society, consisting of two Degrees: When a female took the Second Degree, she was called a Companion of Penelope. A ritual was prepared to include various signs, words and ceremonies, obtained by Doctor Morris from Eastern Freemasons. The instruction was divided into the following parts: Coleman, of Kentucky, became Supreme Chancellor of the Order and in he published at Louisville, for the Society, a guide to the ceremonies and lectures entitled the Pilgrim Knight.

From the Latin word palmifer, meaning a palm-bearer. A name given in the time of the Crusades to a pilgrim, who, coming back from the holy war after having accomplished his vow of pilgrimage, exhibited upon his return home a branch of palm bound round his staff in token of it.

Raised in Evening Star Lodge, No. He officiated as Grand Master in , and In he was exalted in Apollo Chapter, No. In Apollo Commandery, No. Receiving the Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in , including the honorary thirty-third grade on August 3, at the introduction of the Rite into Wisconsin, he was on October 20, , elected and crowned an Active Member of the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction and in was chosen as the Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander, resigning shortly before his death, and was succeeded by Brother Samuel C.

These imitated a set issued in France, A speculative system, which, spiritually considered, identifies the universe with God, and, in the material form, God with the universe. Material Pantheism is subject to the criticism, if not to the accusation of being atheistic. Pantheism is as aged as religion and was the system of worship in India, as it was in Greece. Giordano Brunc was burned for his pantheistic opinions at Rome in Described by John Toland, in his Pantheisticon, as having a strong resemblance to Freemasonry.

The Soeratic Lodge in Germany, based on the Brotherhood, was of short duration. A manuscript in the possession of Wyatt Papworth, of London, who purchased it from a bookseller of that city in As some of the watermarks of the paper on which it is written bear the initials G. It is most probably of a still more recent date, perhaps Woodford has thus described its appearance: The text is of a bold character, but written so irregularly that there are few consecutive pages which have the same number of lines, the average being about seventeen to the page.

The manuscript appears to have been simply a copy, in a little less antiquated language, of some older Constitution. Simons, in his Egyptian Symbols, "is that plant Which formed tablets and books, and forms the first letter of the name of the only eternal and all-powerful god of Egypt, Amen, who in the beginning of things created the world," whose name signified occult or hidden The Hebrew word, owe, which signifies a leaf, and to inscribe on tablets forms, olm, meaning the antique origin of things, obscure time, hidden eternity.

The Turin Funeral Papyrus is a book published by Doctor lepsius in original character, but translated by Doctor Birch. This Book of the Dead is invaluable as containing the true philosophic belief of the Egyptians respecting the resurrection and immortality. The manuscript has been gathered from portions which it was obligatory to bury with the dead. The excavations of mummies in Egypt have been fruitful in furnishing the entire work.

Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus de Hohenheim, as he styled himself, was born in Germany in , and died in He devoted his youth to the study and practice of astrology, alchemy, and magic, and passed many years of his life in traveling over Europe and acquiring information in medicine, of which he proclaimed himself to be the monarch. Brother Mackey says that he was, perhaps, the most distinguished charlatan who ever made a figure in the world.

Certainly his writings, those accredited to him, at least, show us a puzzling personality, superstitious yet methodical, crude in some respects but lucid of statements, a reformer in the rough.

The followers of his school were called Paracelststs, and they continued for more than a century after the death of their master to influence the schools of Germany. Much of the Cabalistic and mystical science of Paracelsus was incorporated into Hermetic Freemasonry by the founders of the advanced Degrees. A Degree to be found in the manuscript collection of Peuvret.

A republic of South America. In the Grand Orient of Paraguay was founded and in it exercised control over ten Lodges. We are consequently unable to give many particulars. In every well-regulated Lodge there is found a point within a circle, which circle is imboridered by two perpendicular parallel lines.

These lines are representative of Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, the two great patrons of Freemasonry to whom our Lodges are dedicated, and who are said to have been "perfect parallels in Christianity as well as Freemasonry" In those English Lodges which have adopted the Union System established by the Grand Lodge of England in As a symbol, the parallel lines are not o be found in the earlier instructions of Freemasonry.

Though Oliver defines the symbol on the authority of what he calls the Old Lectures, it is not to be found , any anterior to Preston, and even he only refers to ne parallelism of the two Saints John. An occult scientific work of the Brahmans. According to a work my Louis Jacolliot, , the Fakirs produced phelomena at will with superior intervention or else with shrewd charlatanism: The loetrines are those known to the Alexandrian school, no the Gauls, and as well to the Christians.

In the division of the Cabala, the first treated of the History the Genesis or Creation, and taught the science of culture; the second, or Mereaba, of the History of he Chariot, and contained a treatise on theology.

Here were three Degrees of initiation among the Brahmans: According to selection, the candidate became L Grihasta, a Pourohita or Fakir, or in twenty years a Guru. A Sannyassis or Cenobite and Vanaprasthas, find lived in the Temple.

A Sannyassis-Nirvany or Naked Cenobite. Those of the third Degree were visible only once in five years, appearing in a column of light created by themselves, at midnight, and on a stand in the center of a great tank. Strange sounds and terrific shrieks ere heard as they were gazed upon as demigods, surrounded by thousands of Hindus. The government was by a Supreme Council of seventy Brahmans, over seventy years of age, selected from the Nirvany, and chosen to see enforced the Law of the Lotus.

The Supreme Chief, or Brahmatna, was required to be saver eighty years of age, and was looked upon as Immortal by the populace. This Pontiff resided in Bn immense palace surrounded by twenty-one walls. The primitive holy word composed of the three otters A.

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Very few Grand Bodies have codified their Parliamentary Law or published it separately; the usages and rules are embedded here and there in the Landmarks, in Grand Lodge Constitutions, in the Statutes and General Laws, in decisions and edicts, in printed rules, and in Lodge By-Laws; the key to finding any given Parliamentary Law is in the subject about which a question has been raised.

Each Grand Jurisdiction has its own custom and its own written rules; these usually differ in detail from those of other Grand Jurisdictions but in its principles and its fundamental rules Masonic Parliamentary Law everywhere is the same, and the foundations of it were laid at the beginning of the Fraternity so that much of it is time immemorial. The Congress of the United States has its own parliamentary code; with some modifications the same code is used by state Legislatures, and it is the model for parliamentary rules in use by voluntary associations, societies, clubs, churches, and by schools.

These rules are printed in Robert's Rules of Order and in Cushing's Manual, both of which are by common consent accepted as authoritative not only by associations every where in America, but by the civil courts; an association need not follow either, but if it does its procedure is sure to be approved by the courts. It so happens, however, that neither of these manuals can be used by a Masonic body. Freemasonry writes its own code. This is because a Lodge differs in the fundamentals of organization from other associations and societies, and especially from those loose and informal groups which are called clubs.

In the structure of its organization a Lodge or Chapter, Council, or Commandery, or Consistory is unique, therefore its parliamentary code is unique.

Two of those fundamentals there are others exhibit both the nature and the extent of that difference: In the great majority of societies and associations the head or chief officer is caned president or chairman. Little or no sovereignty inheres in his office; his principal duty is to preside. Usually he has no function except to see that the group's affairs are conducted according to an approved routine and he himself is not answerable for what the group may do.

By contrast the principal officer of a Masonic Lodge is not a presiding officer only but within fixed limits is a sovereign; he is given the title of Worshipful Master because he is a master. If an action taken by his Lodge is brought into question by the Grand Master or by the Grand Lodge he, at least in the first instance is answerable and responsible.

Manifestly the parliamentary rules which apply to a mere presiding officer could not apply to a Worshipful Master. These transmogrifications among voluntary groups are the rule rather than the exception. But in a Masonic Lodge no member or group of members can either discuss or vote for an innovation in the Landmarks: A member who might wish Freemasonry to be other than it is, can have no alternatives save to accept it or to leave it.

It is obvious that parliamentary practices suitable for a voluntary society cannot apply to Freemasonry. The most comprehensive treatise on the subject is Parliamentary Law, by Albert G. For an epitome of the Masonic code see chapter in Lodge Methods, by L. Lawrence's work on the subject is excellent, but is written for prentices in England. Grand Lodges often include parliamentary rules in their printed Monitors. Since each Grand Body enacts its own rules for its own uses books, articles, and essays are confined to discussions of general principles; the most practicable handbook for a Lodge officer is his Grand Lodge Code.

For Masonic students the richest store of materials is in Grand Lodge Proceedings, especially in the Fraternal or Foreign Correspondence Reports; among these latter the most notable are the Reports written for the Grand Lodge of Maine by Judge Josiah a Drummond between and For parliamentary subjects in detail consult the Index of this Encyclopedia.

In the Lodges of Stone-Masons of the Middle Ages, there was a rank or class of workmen called Parlirers, literally, spokesmen. They were an intermediate class of officers between the Masters of the Lodges and the Fellows, and were probably about the same as our modern Wardens.

Thus, in the Strasbourg Constitutions of , it is said: They were called Parlirers, properly, says Heldmann, Parlierers, or Spokesmen, because, in the absence of the Masters, they spoke for the Lodge, to traveling Fellows seeking employment, and made the examination. There are various forms of the word. Kloss, citing the Strasbourg Constitutions, has Parlirer, Krause has, from the same document, Parlierer, but says it is usually Polier; Heldmann uses Parlierer, which has been generally adopted.

The French for Word and here applied to the Mot de Sexsestre, which see, and in that language this means a six-months password, communicated by the Grand Orient of France, and in addition to an Annual Word in November, which tends to show at once whether a member is in good standing. One who commits to memory the questions and answers of the catechetical lectures, and the formulas of the ritual, but pays no attention to the history and philosophy of the Institution, is commonly called a Parrot Mason, because he is supposed to repeat what he has learned without any conception of its true meaning.

In former times, such superficial Freemasons were held by many in high repute, because of the facility with which they passed through the ceremonies of a reception, and they were generally designated as Bright Masons. But the progress of Freemasonry as a science now requires something more than a mere knowledge of the lectures to constitute a Masonic scholar. The descendants of the original fire worshipers of Persia, or the disciples of Zoroaster who emigrated to India about the end of the eighth century.

There they now constitute a very large and influential body of industrious and moral citizens adhering with great tenacity to the principles and practices of their ancient religion. Many of the higher classes have become worthy members of the Masonic fraternity, and it was for their sake principally that Doctor Burnes attempted some years ago to institute his new Order, entitled the Brotherhood of the Olive Branch, as a substitute for the Christian Degrees of Knighthood, from which, by reason of their religious they were excluded see Olive-Branch in the East, Brotherhood of the, and Zendauesta.

In the Regulations of , it is said that the Grand Lodge consists of the representatives of all the particular Lodges on record Constitutions, , page In the modern Constitutions of England, the term used is Private Lodges. In Armeria, they are called Subordinate Lodges.

In the old obligations, which may be still used in some portions of the United States, there was provision which forbade the revelation of any of the arts, parts, or points of Freemasonry. Doctor Oliver explains the meaning of the word parts by telling us that it was "an old word for degrees or lectures" see Points.

Brother Parvin was born at Muscatine, Iowa, July 5, In he entered the office of the Grand Secretary, where he remained as a clerk and Deputy until the death of his father, Theodore Sutton Parvin, in He was then elected Grand Secretary, in which office he served until his death. He was exalted in Iowa City Chapter No. He was nominated by the Grand Commander and elected to receive the Thirty-Third Degree, and he was crowned by his father, for the Supreme Council, May 17, Brother Parvin died January 16, He participated tn the organization of the first Lodge, Des Moines, No.

He was elected Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge at its organization in , and held the office continuously to the time of his death, with the exception of the year , when he served as Grand Master. He founded and organized the Grand Lodge Library and held the office of Grand Librarian until his death. His official signature is on every Charter of the Grand Lodge of towa from - Knighted January 18, , in Apollo Encampment, No.

In addition to this record, our Brother also organized the Grand Bodies of Dakota, and the Grand Commandery of Nebraska, and his contributions to Masonic literature placed him among the leading writers and thinkers of the Craft. He died at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, June 28, In the French system, the room immediately adjoining a Masonic Lodge is so called. It is equivalent to the Preparation Room of the American and English systems. Celebrated by the Jews in commemoration of the Passover, by the Christians in commemoration of the resurrection of our Lord.

Where two are together on Maundy Thursday, it is of obligation that they should partake of a portion of roasted lamb. This banquet is symbolic of the doctrine of the resurrection. It was divided into two classes, in the first of which was represented the fall of man from virtue and happiness, and in the second, his final restoration. It consisted of nine degrees, namely: Fellow Craft Cohen 7. Paschalis first introduced this Rite into some of the Lodges of Marseilles, Toulouse, and Bordeaux, and afterward, in , he extended it to Paris, where, for a short time, it was rather popular, ranking some of the Parisian literati among its disciples.

It has ceased to exist. Paschalis was a German, born about the year , of poor but respectable parentage. At the age of sixteen he acquired a knowledge of Greek and Latin. He then traveled through Turkey, Arabia, and Palestine, where he made himself acquainted with the Cabalistic learning of the Jews.

He subsequently repaired to Paris, where he established his Rite. Paschalis was the Master of Saint Martin, who afterward reformed his Rite. After living for some years at Paris, he went to Santo Domingo, where he died in The French call the room appropriated to visitors the Salle des pas perdus, literally the Hall of the Lost Steps, a Masonic waiting room.

A candidate, on receiving the Second Degree, is said to be "passed as a Fellow Craft. That is, surpassing in skill. The expression occurs in the Cooke Manuscript line , "The forsayde Maister Euglet ordeynet thei were passing of conyng should be passing honored"; that, The aforesaid Master, Euclid, ordained that they that were surpassing in skill should be exceedingly honored. It is a fundamental principle of Freemasonry to pay all honor to knowledge. A mystical alphabet said to have been used by the Cabalists.

These characters, with certain explanations, become the subject of consideration with Brethren of the Fifteenth Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The accompanying are the characters. A word intended, like the military countersign, to prove the friendly nature of him who gives it, and is a test of his right to pass or be admitted into a certain place. Between a Word and a Password there seems fo be this difference: Thus, the author of the life of the celebrated Elias Ashmole says, "Freemasons are known to one another all over the world by certain passwords known to them alone; they have Lodges in different countries, where they are relieved by the brotherhood if they are in distress" see Sign.

An epithet applied in Freemasonry to an officer who has held an office for the prescribed period for which he was elected, and has then retired. Thus, a Past Master is one who has been elected and installed to preside for twelve months over a Lodge, and the Past High Priest one who, for the same period, has been installed to preside over a Chapter. The French use the word Passe in the same sense, but they have also the word Anaen, with a similar meaning.

Thus, while they would employ Al altre passe to designate the Degree of Past Master, they would call the official Past Master, who had retired from the chair at the expiration of his term of service, an Ancient Venerable, or Ancient Maitre note also Passed and Past Master. An honorary Degree usually conferred on the Master of a Lodge at his installation into office. In this Degree the necessary instructions are conferred respecting the various ceremonies of the Order, such as installations, processions, the laying of corner-stones, etc.

When a Brother, who has never before presided, has been elected the Master of a Lodge, an emergent Lodge of Past Masters, consisting of not less than three, is convened, and all but Past Masters retiring, the Degree is conferred upon the newly elected officer..

Some form of ceremony at the installation of a new Master seems to have been adopted at an early period after the revival. In the "manner of constituting a new Lodge," as practiced by the Duke of Wharton, who was Grand Master in , the language used by the Grand Master when placing the candidate in the chair is given, and he is said to use "some other expressions that are proper and usual on that occasion, but not proper to be written" Constitutions, , page Whence we conclude that there was an esoteric ceremony.

Often the rituals tell us that this ceremony consisted only in the outgoing Master communicating certain modes of recognition to his successor. And this actually, even at this day, constitutes the essential ingredient of the Past Master's Degree.

The conferring of this Degree, which has no historical connection with the rest of the Degrees, in a Chapter, arises from the following circumstance: Originally, when Chapters of Royal Arch Masonry were under the government of Lodges in which the Degree was then always conferred, it was a part of the regulations that no one could receive the Royal Arch Degree unless he had previously presided in the Lodge as Master.

When the Chapters became independent, the regulation could not be abolished, for that would have been an innovation; the difficulty has, therefore been obviated, by malting ever candidate for the Degree of Royal Arch a Virtual Past Master before his exaltation.

Under the English Constitution this practice was forbidden in , but seems to have lingered on in some parts until Some extraneous ceremonies, but no means creditable to their inventor, were at an early period introduced into America. In , the General Grand Chapter, by a unanimous vote, ordered these ceremonies to be discontinued, and the simpler mode of investiture to be used; but the order has only been partially obeyed, and many Chapters continue what one can scarcely help calling the indecorous form of initiation into the Degree.

For several years past the question has been agitated in some of the Grand Lodges of the United States, whether this Degree is within the Jurisdiction of Symbolic or of Royal Arch Masonry. The explanation of its introduction into Chapters, just given, manifestly demonstrates that the jurisdiction over it by Chapters is altogether an assumed one. Gould Masonic Monthly, July, says in regard to the Degrees of Past Master and the Royal Arch, "The supposition has much to recommend it, that the connection of the secrets of the Royal Arch, is the earliest form in which any esoteric teaching was specially linked with the incidents of Lodge Mastership, or in other words, that the Degree of Royal Arch was the complement of the Masters Grade.

Out of this was ultimately evolved the Degree of Installed Master, a ceremony unknown in the Modern System until the first decade of the nineteenth century, and of which I can trace no sign amongst the Ancient until the growing practice of conferring the Arch upon Brethren not legally qualified to receive it, brought about the constructive passing through the Chair, which by qualifying candidates not otherwise eligible, naturally entailed the introduction of a ceremony, additional to the simple forms known to Payne, Anderson, and Desaguliers ".

Past Masters are admitted to membership in many Grand Lodges, and by some the inherent right has been claimed to sit in those Bodies. But the most eminent Masonic authorities have made a contrary decision, and the general, and, indeed, almost universal opinion now is that Past Masters obtain their seats in Grand Lodges by courtesy, and in consequence of local regulations, and not by inherent right.

A subtle distinction may be noted between the expressions Past and Pass'd Master. The Past Master was the Brother who 'had served his just and lawful time' as W. The Passed Master was a Brother who had been passed through a so-called Chair Degree, and had thereby been entrusted with certain equivalent secrets.

The epithet Past is an adjective, conveying the idea of time expired: Such verbal niceties did not trouble the Brethren of the eighteenth, or any other century" footnote, page , volume xxviu, , Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, by Brother W. The usual jewel of a Past Master in the United States is a pair of compasses extended to sixty degrees on the fourth part of a circle, with a sun in the center.

In England it was formerly the square on a quadrant, but is at present the square with the forty-seventh problem of Euclid engraved on a silver plate suspended within it. This latter design is also adopted m Pennsylvania. The French have two titles to express this Degree. They apply Maztre Passe to the Past Master of the English and American system, and they call in their own system one who has formerly presided over a Lodge an Ancien Maitre. The indiscriminate use of these titles sometimes leads to confusion in the translation of their lectures and treatises.

He ranks immediately after the then Immediate Past Master and in later lists of the Past Masters his name is placed before that of the Worshipful Master presiding in the East when he affiliates.

Couch or shrine bearers. The company of Pastophori constituted a sacred college of priests in Egypt, whose duty it was to carry in processions the image of the god. Their chief, according to Apuleius Metamorphoses xi , was called a Scribe. Besides acting as mendicants in soliciting charitable donations from the populace, they took an important part in the Mysteries.

The Greek word, meaning a couch. The pastos was a chest or close cell, in the Pagan Mysteries, among the Druids, an excavated stone, in which the aspirant was for some time placed, to commemorate the mystical death of the god.

This constituted the symbolic death which was common to all the mysteries. In the Arkite Rites, the pastos represented the ark in which Noah was confined. It is represented among Masonic symbols by the coffin see Coffin.. The term is also sometimes applied to Commissions granted for the exercise of high Masonic authority. Literae patented was aperture that is, letters patent or open letters, was a term used in the Middle Ages in contradistinction to literae clausae, or closed letters, to designate those documents which were spread out on the whole length of the parchment, and sealed with the public seal of the sovereign; while the secret or private seal only was attached to the closed patents.

The former were sealed with green wax, the latter with white. There was also a difference in their heading; letters patent were directed "universis tum praesentibus quam futuris," that is, to ad present or to come; while closed letters were directed "universis praesentibus literas inspecturis," that is, to all present who shad inspect these letters. Masonic Diplomas are therefore properly called Letters Patent, or, more briefly, Patents. In the instructions of the Third Degree according to the American Rite, it has been said that "time, patience, and perseverance will enable us to accomplish all things, and perhaps at last to find the true Master's Word.

Thus Pernetty tells us Dictionary of Hermetic Mythology , that the alchemists said: The theory of Doctor Oliver on this subject has, we think, been misinterpreted. He does not maintain, as has been falsely supposed, that the Freemasonry of the present day is but a continuation of that which was practiced by the Patriarchs, but simply that, in the simplicity of the patriarchal worship, unencumbered as it was with dogmatic creeds, we may find the true model after which the religious system of Speculative Freemasonry has been constructed.

Thus in his Historical Landmarks I, page he says: The events that occurred in these ages of simplicity of manners and purity of faith, when it pleased God to communicate with his favored creature, necessarily, therefore, form subjects of interesting illustration in our Lodges, and constitute legitimate topics on which the Master in the chair may expatiate and exemplify, for the edification of the Brethren and their improvement in morality and the love and fear of God.

The legend of that Degree connects it with the Crusades, and hence the name; which, however, is never used officially, and is retained by regular Supreme Councils only as a synonym.

In the year , the Prince of Wales, becoming Regent of the Kingdom, was constrained by reasons of state to resign the Grand Mastership of England, but immediately afterward accepted the title of Grand Patron of the Order in England, and this was the first time that the title was officially recognized.

On the accession of Queen Victoria, the title fell into abeyance, because it was understood that it could only be assumed by a sovereign who was a member of the Craft, but King Edward VII became Protector of English Freemasons on his accession to the throne in The office is generally not known in other countries, though on the Continent similar positions have been occupied see Protector. At an early period we find that the Christian church adopted the usage of selecting for every trade and occupation its own patron saint, who is supposed to have taken it under his especial charge.

The selection was generally made in reference to some circumstance in the life of the saint, which traditionally connected him with the profession of which he was appointed the patron. Thus Saint Crispin, because he was a shoemaker, is the patron saint of the Gentle Craft, and Saint Dunstan, who was a blacksmith, is the patron of blacksmiths. The reason why the two Saints John were selected as the patron saints of Freemasonry will be seen under the head of Dedication of Lodges.

These people, when assembled, passed sentence on their fellow-citizens; and if anyone was condemned, the waylaying and putting him to death was allotted to one of the members, which office he was obliged, without murmuring, to execute Stolberg's Travels, volume iii, page In the travels of Brocquire to and from Palestine in , page , an instance is given of the power of the association over its members. In the German romance of Hermunn of Unna, of which there are an English and French translation, this tribunal plays an important part.

This Emperor of Russia was induced by the machinations of the Jesuits, whom he had recalled from banishment, to prohibit in his domains all secret societies, and especially the Freemasons.

This prohibition lasted from , when it was repealed by his successor. Paul had always expressed himself an enthusiastic admirer of the Knights of Malta; in he had assumed the title of Protector of the Order, and in accepted the Grand Mastership.

This is another evidence, if one was needed, that there was no sympathy between the Order of Malta and the Freemasons. He tells us that Catherine's son, Paul I, was himself a Freemason. It is said that he was introduced to Freemasonry during a journey which he made through Europe, when he was still the Czare witch, in company of his wife, and of Prince Kurakin who was a most devoted son of Freemasonry.

Was it not natural then that the Association which had been outlawed and banished by his mother should look forward to being reinstalled and rehabilitated?

And this expectation seemed as though it were perfectly justified, for immediately after his coronation Paul summoned to Moscow the Freemasons of that city, with Professor Matthai, the Master in the Chair of the former Lodge To the Three Swords at their head, and took counsel with them "in a brotherly spirit and without ceremony" as to what should be done.

At the conclusion of the negotiations "he embraced each single one as a Freemason and gave him the Masonic shake of the hands. But does such an explanation clear up everything? No, for Paul was not so ill as to be unable to grasp what would be the consequences of his action. On the contrary, as soon as it was a question of an advantage for his own person, or something that added to his lustre, he was suddenly quite normal in the choice of his means.

This change of attitude was, therefore, perhaps, preceded by well-weighed considerations; nay, we may add that they were considerations with a real genuine background. It was about this time that the Knights of Malta who were hard-pressed by Napoleon Bonaparte turned to the Czar Paul for protection. According to the information conveyed to Paul by Count Litter, a Knight of Malta, Freemasonry was a hindrance and even a danger to the aims of this Order. He was, therefore, obliged to decide in favor of the one or the other.

The Maltese Order was something definite; it was a power, whereas Freemasonry was really nothing, or at any rate something altogether indefinite which might perhaps have a future, but perhaps it might not.

Could Paul find the choice hard to make? In addition there was a something which, though altogether unpolitical, has often decided questions in politics, namely: Paul's principal mis tress, the extremely beautiful Anna Lopuchin.

Further, it is said that the Jesiuts set going every imaginable and unimaginable expedient against Freemasonry. Nor does this seem to have been impossible. This Brother claims that, "There are many not unimportant grounds of suspicion that Paul was a member of the builder society at Damascus, and a master thereof, perhaps even a Chairmaster. For instance, the following statement is a fair example of his line of thought: The virtue which the builder-societies impressed upon their members as the most edifying the most conducive to edification, and which Saint Paul recommends to Christian builders as the dower and crown of humanity, the highest aspiration of Christian builder-societies, is agape, love, union in love.

In his epistle to the Corinthians, amongst whom Saint Paul worked and taught eighteen months, the word is repeated twenty-three times. Most remarkable is the distinction I Corinthians viii 1 between gnosis, wisdom of the mysteries, and agape, Christian union.

The original meaning of agape is not love, charity, but union, unity: The constant use of all these words points to the supposition that Saint Paul was a member of a builder-society, Mason Lodge.

In this sense the fraternity of Masons is thus as old as mankind itself, and the most energetic and active apostle of Christianity was a Mason. The agreement of the principles of Freemasonry with those of Christianity can only be denied by the malevolent or those totally unacquainted with the Craft. There is almost nothing anywhere in the early records of Speculative Lodges to suggest either a history or an interpretation of the Pavement, which is represented by a series of black and white squares inside a rectangular frame; nor does there anywhere appear an explanation of why a Blazing Star was set in the middle of it, or why a rope with a tie and tassels in the corners was combined with it.

By general consent Masonic symbologists have treated these as separate svmbolisms, yet there must belong together or they would not have been shown together on old Tracing Boards. Despite this paucity of data the Pavement is one of the most interesting of Masonic symbols, and that interest is heightened with each discover of news facts.

In it many types of symbolism converge. It is the warfare of Michael and Satan. The Pavement also suggests the correct position of the feet; and the fact that in Circumambulation the turns are at right angles, which in itself impresses upon a Candidate the fact that in a Lodge no member can run to and from at will, and that goings and comings are ordered.

The checkered design may be thought of as inlay work or as mosaic work, but in Masonry it is described by the latter word.

The Greek artisans of the Byzantine Period used mosaic 60 extensively and so skillfully that it also came to be called in memory of them opus alexandrium, and opus graecanicum; and occasionally it was called opus sedile. But as a Greek art it died out in the Seventh Century, a short time before Charlemagne, and when the Western Empire was about to sever its last ties with the Eastern. Masons are to know each other in the dark as well as in the light; in the dark a man needs a guide, in the daylight he can guide himself; a man hexes, or buries, his secrets in the dark where no other can find them.

These meanings cluster around the symbolism of the Pavement; perhaps the sun is meant by the Blazing Star as it was once called and is in the center because it makes the day by its shining and the night by the shadow it casts; and perhaps the rope around the perimeter reminds men that while for the world day and night go on endlessly they do not for him, and only a few days are going to be tied together in his span of them, so that it is good for him, as is the Masons' creed, to work while it is called of day for soon the night cometh when no man can work.

For an interesting account of the mosaic work of the Cosmati family see Cathedral Builders, by Leader Scott; p. I, of Porter's Medieval Architecture. Kugler writes with authority on Cosmati work in Part I, p. In Latin, Hugo de Paganis. He was born at Troyes, in the kingdom of Naples.

Having, with eight others, established the Order at Jerusalem, in he visited Europe, where, through his representations, its reputation and wealth and the number of its followers were greatly increased. In he returned to Jerusalem, where he was received with great distinction, but shortly afterward died, and was succeeded in the Grand Mastership by Robert de Craon, surnamed the Burgundian. An English Freemason, who lived at New Palace Yard, Westminster, England, where he died January 23, , leaving very little record of his personal life outside of the fact that he seas at the time secretary to the Tax Office with a d social and financial position.

A biographical note in the Freemason, June 6, , quotes the Gentlexnan's Maganne, , that among the various bequests in his will were legacies to two of his nieces, Francis, Countess of Northampton, and Catherine, Lady Francis Seymour. From he acted as the second Grand Master of Freemasons, being again elected for the year The General Regulations, which were subsequently rearranged and published by Doctor Anderson in , were originally compiled by Brother Payne during his second term of office as Grand Master.

Payne was also Master of the original No. These revisions were finally brought to a conclusion and published by Entick in The spirit of Freemasonry is antagonistic to war. Its tendency is to unite all men in one brotherhood, whose ties must necessarily be weakened by all dissension. Wherever it exists, it struggles to prevent international difficulties and disputes, and to bind republics, kingdoms, and empires together in one great band of peace and amity. The universality of Freemasonry which is everywhere accepted as a Landmark in principle is as yet unrealized in practice.

American Lodges admit Jesvs, who have long been debarred by a number of European Grand Bodies, but does not accept Negroes. Some Lodges in the Near East admit Mohammedans, others do not. These " discrepancies, " or apparent inconsistencies, are found in every Masonic country, and they are made the more glaringly evident by the fact that in none of the Landmarks or Constitutions or Charters of regularly constituted Masonic Bodies are racial, social, or religious exclusions incorporated.

The solution of the paradox is found in another Landmark, indubitably coeval with Freemasonry, to the effect that it is the first duty of Brethren when in Lodge assembled, and the paramount duty of the Worshipful Master, to maintain the peace and harmony of the Craft.

This has been universally understood to refer not only to quarrels, schisms, cabals, etc. A Lodge being not in a vacuum, and being composed of men who cannot wholly divest themselves of their feelings or even of their prejudices, is unable to act with absolute independence of its milieu, but must for sake of its own peace and harmony so act, at least for a time, as to exclude disturbing factors; if for this reason a Lodge in a given community excludes men of some race, language, or religion it is not because Freemasonry is antipathetic to them in principle, but because they are disturbing at a given place and time.

Moreover the Craft never from its earliest years has admitted that any non-Mason has a right to demand membership; the non-Mason must petition, that is, pray for, the Degrees, and appeals to the grace of the Body to which he prays; the Body can refuse to grant that prayer for any reason of its own, and is therefore not responsible to demands set up in the world outside itself.

American Grand Jurisdictions do not in fact whether in principle or not accept petitions from Negroes; this is solely because for the time being the Lodges are working amidst a social problem which is not of its making and which it cannot as a Masonic body alter among non-Masons; it is not because Negroes are not white; and it may easily come to pass in the future that when the "race issue" has ceased to be disturbing, Negroes will be admitted.

Nothing in the Landmarks or in any Grand Lodge Constitution discriminates against them. Entered civil engineer corps, United States Navy, ; made his first expedition north, with one companion, ; again in , , , , and for a sixth time in , reaching the North Pole at last, April 6, Belonging to the breast; from the Latin pectus, meaning the breast. The heart has always been considered the seat of fortitude and courage, and hence by this word is suggested to the Freemason certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of fortitude.

In the earliest lectures of the eighteenth century it was called one of the "principal signs," and had this hieroglyphic, X; but in the modern instructions the hieroglyphic has become obsolete, and the word is appropriated to one of the Perfect Points of Entrance. The breastplate worn by the High Priest of the Jews was so called from pectus, meaning the breast, upon which it rested see Breastplate and Pectoral. In the period when Mitchell, Macoy, Morris were writing their books, Mackey was writing his earlier books, and Oliver and Preston were the staples of Masonic reading, "the peculiarity of Masonry" was a recognized subject, discussed in print, and the theme of many speeches and orations.

Then came in American colloquial usage the corrupting of the word into a descriptive name for idiosyncratic, hard to know, ultra individualistic men, or cranks; and with the loss of the word's meaning the subject of Masonic peculiarity fell out of discussion. Men accustomed to describe something or somebody hard to know, or unusual, as "peculiar," could not see that Freemasonry was peculiar in that sense. It is unfortunate that a shift in speech occasioned the eclipse of one of the old, and important, and revealing Masonic subjects.

From the first, Freemasonry had something which it itself had found out, which belonged to itself alone, which it had borrowed from no outside source, and never altered to suit outside demands, and which persisted unaltered through one change after another in circumstances. The doctrine therefore is a sound one; and it is a safe key to Masonic history, because what the historian of Speculative Freemasonry evermore is searching for is that in Freemasonry which from the beginning has persisted; and which though it has had to work under one set of circumstances or another has maintained its original identity from the beginning.

Belonging to the feet, from the Latin word pedes, meaning the feet The just man is he who, firmly planting his feet on tie principles of right, is as immovable as a rock, and can be thrust from his upright position neither by the allurements of flattery, nor the frowns of arbitrary power.

Hence by this word is suggested to the Freemason certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of justice. As in the case of Pectoral, this word was assigned, in the oldest instructions to the principal signs of a Freemason, having for its hieroglyphic; but in the modern lectures it is one of the Perfect Points of Entrance, and the hieroglyphic is no longer used.

Some such curious old hieroglyphics were probably indications of foot or hand positions. The pedestal is the lowest part or base of a column on which the shaft is placed. In a Lodge, there are supposed to be three columns, the column of Wisdom in the East, the column of Strength in the West, and the column of Beauty in the South.

These columns are not generally erected in the Lodge, but their pedestals always are, and at each pedestal sits one of the three superior officers. Hence we often hear such expressions as these, advancing to the pedestal, or standing before the pedestal, to signify advancing to or standing before the seat of the Worshipful Master.

The custom in some Lodges of placing tables or desks before the three principal officers is, of course, incorrect. They should, for the reason above assigned, be representations of the pedestals of columns, and should be painted to represent marble or stone. A Latin word meaning a Shepherd's Crook, and is so used by the Roman poet, Vergil, and hence sometimes used in ecclesiology for the Bishop's Crozier.

In the Statutes of the Order of the Temple at Paris, it is prescribed that the Grand Master shall carry a "pedum magistrate sev patriarchal But the better word for the staff of the Grand Master of the Templars is baculus, which see. The Demon of Calumny in the religious system of Zoroaster, Persia.

The Pelasgians were the oldest, if not the aboriginal, inhabitants of Greece. Their religion differed from that of the Hellenes, who succeeded them, in being less poetical, less mythical, and more abstract. We know little of their religious worship except by conjecture; but we may suppose it resembled in some respects the doctrines of what Doctor Oliver calls the Primitive Freemasonry. Creuzer thinks that the Pelasgians were either a nation of priests or a nation ruled by priests.

A Hebrew word meaning Division. A son of Eber. In his day the world was divided. A significant word in the advanced Degrees. In the Noachite, or Twenty-first Degree of the Scottish Rite, there is a singular legend of Peleg, which of course is altogether mythical, in which he is represented as the Architect of the Tower of Babel.

The pelican feeding her young with her blood is a prominent symbol of the Eighteenth or Rose Croix Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and was adopted as such from the fact that the pelican, in ancient Christian art, was considered as an emblem of the Savior. Now this symbolism of the pelican, as a representative of the Savior, is almost universally supposed to be derived from the common belief that the pelican feeds her young with her blood, as the Savior shed his blood for mankind; and hence the bird is always represented as sitting on her nest, and surrounded by her brood of young ones, who are dipping their bills into a wound in their mother's breast.

But this is not the exact idea of the symbolism, which really refers to the resurrection, and is, in this point of view, more applicable to Christ, as well as to the Masonic Degree of which the resurrection is a doctrine. The pelican is very fond of his young ones, and when they are born and begin to grow, they rebel in their nest against their parent, and strike him with their wings flying about him, and beat him so much till they wound him in his eyes.

Then the father strikes and kills them. And the mother is of such a nature that she comes back to the nest on the third day, and sits down upon her dead young ones, and opens her side with her bill and pours her blood over them, and so resuscitates them from death; for the young ones, by their instinct, receive the blood as soon as it comes out of the mother, and drink it.

The Ortus Vocabulorum, compiled early in the fifteenth century, gives the fable more briefly: Then she wounds herself, and with the aspersione of her blood resuscitates her children. Ut pelicanu fit matris sanguine sanus, Sie Saneti sumus nos omnes sanguine nati. As the Pelican is restored by the blood of its mother so are we all born by the blood of the Holy One, that is, of Christ.

Saint Jerome gives the same story, as an illustration of the destruction of man by the old serpent, and his salvation by the blood of Christ. Shelton, in an old work entitled the Armorie of Birds, expresses the same sentiment in the following words: Then said the pelican When my birds be slain, With my blood I them revive Scripture doth record The same did our Lord And rose from death to life.

This romantic story was religiously believed as a fact of natural history in the earliest ages of the church. Hence the pelican was very naturally adopted as a symbol of the resurrection and, by consequence, of Him whose resurrection is, as Cruden terms it, "the cause, pattern, and argument of ours. But in the course of time the original legend mas, to some extent, corrupted, and a simpler one was adopted, namely, that the pelican fed her young with her own blood merely as a means of sustenance, and the act of maternal love was then referred to as Christ shedding his blood for the sins of the world.

In this view of the symbolism, Pugin has said that the pelican is "an emblem of our Blessed Lord shedding his blood for mankind, and therefore a most appropriate symbol to be introduced on all vessels or ornaments connected with the Blessed Sacrament " In the Antiquities of Durhom Abbey, we learn that "over the high altar of Durham Abbey hung a rich and most sumptuous canopy for the Blessed Sacrament to hang within it, whereon stood a pelican, all of silver, upon the height of the said canopy, very finely gilt, giving her blood to her young ones, in token that Christ gave His blood for the sins of the world.

But Doctor Mackey believed the true theory of the pelican is, that by restoring her young ones to life by her blood, she symbolizes the resurrection. The old symbologists said, after Jerome, that the male pelican, who destroyed his young, represents the serpent, or evil principle, which brought death into the world; while the mother, who resuscitates them, as the representative of that Son of.

Man of whom it is declared, "except ye drink of His blood, ye have no life in you. One of the pseudonyms or false names assumed by Joseph Balsamo, better known as Count Cagliostro, which see. The adversaries of Freemasonry have found, or rather invented, abundant reasons for denouncing the Institution; but on nothing have they more strenuously and fondly lingered than on the accusation that it makes, by horrid and impious cere Lnonies, all its members the willing or unwilling executioners of those who prove recreant to their cows and violate the laws which they are stringently hound to observe.

Even a few timid and uninstructed freemasons have been found who were disposed to believe that there was some weight in this objection. All of this arises from a total misapprehension, in the minds of those who are thus led astray, of the true character and design of vows or oaths which are accompanied by an imprecation. It is well, therefore,. The only Masonic penalty inflicted by the Order upon a traitor, is the scorn and detestation of the Craft whom he has sought to betray.

But that this subject may be thoroughly understood, it is necessary that some consideration should be given to oaths generally, and to the character of the imprecations by which they are accompanied. The observation, or imprecation, is that part of every oath which constitutes its sanction, and which consists in calling some superior power to witness the declaration or promise made, and invoking his protection for or anger against the person making it, according as the said declaration or promise is observed or violated.

Thus, among the Jews, we find such observations as these: A very common observation among the Greeks was isto Zeus or theon marturomai, meaning May Jove stand by me, or I call God to unfitness.

And the Romans, among an abundance of other observations, often said, dii me perdant, meaning May the gods destroy me, or ne vivam, May I die. These modes of observation were accompanied, to make them more solemn and sacred, by certain symbolic forms.

Thus the Jews caused the person who swore to hold up his right hand toward heaven, by which action he was supposed to signify that he appealed to God to witness the truth of what he had averred or the sincerity of his intention to fulfil the promise that he had made. Among the Greeks and Romans, the person swearing placed his hands, or sometimes only the right hand, upon the altar, or upon the victims when, as was not unusual, the oath was accompanied by a sacrifice, or upon some other sacred thing.

In the military oath, for instance, the soldiers placed their hands upon the signa, or standards see Hand. The observation, with an accompanying form of solemnity, vas indeed essential to the oath among the ancients, because the crime of perjury was not generally looked upon by them in the same light in which it is viewed by the moderns. It was, it is true, considered as a heinous crime, but a crime not so much against society as against the gods, and its punishment was supposed to be left to the deity whose sanctity had been violated by the adjuration of his name to a false oath or broken vow.

Hence, Cicero says that "death was the divine punishment of perjury, but only dishonor was its human penalty. Swearing was entirely a matter of conscience, and the person who was guilty of false swearing, where his testimony did not affect the rights or interests of others, was considered as responsible to the deity alone for his perjury.

The explicit invocation of God, as a witness to the truth of the thing said, or, in promissory oaths, to the faithful observance bf the act promised, the observation of Divine punishment upon the jurator if what he swore to be true should prove to be false, or if the vow made should be thereafter violated, and the solemn form of lifting up the hand to heaven or placing it upon the altar or the sacred victims, must necessarily have given confidence to the truth of the attestation, and must have been required by the hearers as some sort of safeguard or security for the confidence they were called upon to exercise.

This seems to have been the true reason for the ancient practice of solemn observation in the administration of oaths. Among modern nations, the practice has been continued, and from the ancient usage of invoking the names of the gods and of placing the hands of the person swearing upon their altars, we derive the present method of sanctifying every oath by the attestation contained in the phrase "So help me, God," and the concluding form of kissing the Holy Scriptures see Oath and Oath, Corporal.

Now the question naturally occurs as to what is the true intent of this observation, and what practical operation is expected to result from it. In other words, what is the nature of a penalty attached to an oath, and how is it to be enforced7 When the ancient Roman, in attesting with the solemnity of an oath to the truth of what he had just said or was about to say, concluded with the formula, "May the gods destroy me," it is evident that he simply meant to say that he was so convinced of the truth of what he had said that he was entirely willing that his destruction by the gods whom he had invoked should be the condition consequent upon his falsehood.

He had no notion that he was to become outlawed among his fellow-creatures, and that it should be not only the right, but the duty, of any man to destroy him. His crime would have been one against the Divine law, and subject only to a Divine punishment. In modern times, perjury is made a penal offense against human laws, and its punishment is inflicted by human tribunals.

But here the punishment of the crime is entirely different from that inferred by the observation which terminates the oath. The words "So help me, God," refer exclusively to the withdrawal of Divine aid and assistance from the jurator in the case of his proving false, and not to the human punishment which society would inflict. In like manner, we may say of what are called Masonic penalties, that they refer in no case to any kind of human punishment; that is to say, to any kind of punishment which is to be inflicted by human hand or instrumentality.

The true punishments of Freemasonry affect neither life nor limb. They are expulsion and suspension only. But those persons are wrong, be they mistaken friends or malignant enemies, who suppose or assert that there is any other sort of penalty which a Freemason recreant to his vows is subjected to by the laws of the Order, or that it is either the right or duty of any Freemason to inflict such penalty on an offending Brother.

The observation of a Freemason simply means that if he violates his vows or betrays his trust he is worthy of such penalty, and that if such penalty were inflicted on him it would be but just and proper.

The ritualistic penalties of Freemasonry, supposing such to be, are in the hands not of man, but of God, and are to be inflicted by God, and not by man. Brother Fort says, in the twenty-ninth chapter of his Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, that: Penalties inflicted upon convicts of certain grades during the Middle Ages, were terrible and inhuman.

The most cruel punishment awaited him who broke into and robbed a Pagan Temple. According to a law of the Frisians, such desecration was redressed by dragging the criminal to the seashore and burring the body at a point in the sands where the tide daily ebbed and flowed Lex Frisionum, title xiu.

A creditor was privileged to subject his delinquent debtor to the awful penalty of having the flesh torn from his breast and fed to birds of prey. Convicts were frequently adjudged by the ancient Norse code to have their hearts torn out Grimm, Demtsche Rechts-Alter thumer, page The oldest death penalties of the Scandinavians prescribed that the body should be exposed to fowls of the air to feed upon.

Sometimes it was decreed that the victim be disemboweled, his body burnt to ashes and scattered as dust to the winds. Judges of the secret Vehmgericht passed sentences of death as follows: A law of the early Roman Umpires known as Ex Jure Orientis Calsareo, enacted that any person, suitor at law or witness, having sworn upon the evangelists, and proving to be a perjurer, should have the tongue cut from its roots.

A cord about the neck was used symbolically, in criminal courts, to denote that the accused was worthy of the extreme penalty of law by hanging or decapitation. When used upon the person of a freeman, it signified a slight degree of subjection or servitude pages , and Some eminent Brethren of the Fraternity insist that the penalty had its origin in the manner in which the lamb was sacrificed under the charge of the Captain of the Temple, who directed the Priests: The lamb was brought to the north of the altar, its head southward and its face northward The lamb was then slaughtered; a hole was made in its side, and thus it was hung up.

The Priest skinned it downward until he came to the breast, then he cut off the head, and finished the skinning; he tore out the heart, subsequently he cleft the body, and if became all open before him; he took out the intestines etc.

Katharine's 7 for robbing on the sea. In Holinshed's Chronide, and referring to the Sixteenth Century: In Parliament directed that Richard Roose be boiled to death. See page 21, Burough Customs; by Selden Society; also pp.

The Laws of Henry I mention scalping and flaying as punishments. There were three modes of "drawing": Loughead was drawn to Tyburn sharp stones were laid in the path. Elk Rapids is the only sizable village on the lake, and it provides a lake marina and other facilities such as boat rentals. Elkhart Lake Located only an hour from Milwaukee and two and a half hours from Chicago, Elkhart Lake is a acre spring-fed lake in the heart of Wisconsin's Kettle Moraine State Forest, and it is one of the deepest and oldest resort lakes in the heartland.

It has been attracting visitors since , and some of the old resorts famous for bathing and gambling still exist to this day, though they have been appropriately updated. The lake is very popular for sailing, and there are races every Sunday. There is a public boat launch maintained by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, as well as a small public beach. In the winter, the lake is very popular for ice fishing, cross-country skiing, and snowmobiling.

It is about five miles long and only one mile wide. It has an Gull Lake became a summer getaway for wealthy families in the late s. In the winter, ice skating, ice fishing, ice boating, and ice golf are common activities.

There are two points for public access. Prairieville Township Park, located on the north shore, provides a boat launch ramp that can fit 70 boat trailers. A much smaller boat access on the northeast shore is located on Baseline Road. There are two marinas and a golf course on the Gull Lake shoreline. Higgins Lake Higgins Lake is a natural glacial lake located five miles west from the town of Roscommon. Its maximum depth of feet and average depth of 52 feet ensure crystal clear, and the azure blue waters and spectacular visibility make the lake very attractive to snorkelers.

Other popular water sports on the lake include tubing, water skiing, and kneeboarding. Higgins Lake offers superb fishing opportunities for northern pike, brown, lake and rainbow trout, and smallmouth bass. Ice fishing is so popular that on days with good ice conditions, you can see more than ice shanties on the lake. South Higgins State Park is larger and has almost one mile of the lake's shoreline.

It also has three major hiking, biking and cross-country skiing trails. You will also find three boat ramps. Shaped like an elongated S, it has Its maximum depth is 95 feet and average depth is 43 feet. The lakes in the chain are connected through rivers and streams so that boaters can go from one to another, enjoying spectacular scenery on the way.

Lake Bellaire is great for swimming, kayaking, windsurfing, waterskiing, sailing, boating, and fishing. The lake is densely populated and surrounded by a number of luxurious resorts as well as charming bed and breakfasts, inns, condo villages, and modern campgrounds. The main town on the lake is Bellaire, located on the northeast side.

It is separated by Lake Michigan and a dam, and it is connected through Leland River. The two parts of the lake have different depths and temperatures, providing home to different fish species and attracting anglers looking for walleye, yellow perch, or bass.

The nearby town of Leland has an annual Walleye Festival in the spring. Leland also has a marina, a number of fishing guides and charters, and a ferry that takes tourists to Manitou Islands. The lakeshores are dotted with private residencies, cottages, campgrounds, and log cabins.

It is the largest freshwater lake in the world within one country; Lake Michigan is miles long and miles wide, with 1, miles of shoreline. There are over 80 lighthouses around the lake and its large islands. Lake Michigan is also a home to 12 million people and the destination of thousands of visitors. There are miles of hiking trails all around the lake as well as the 6,mile scenic Great Lakes Circle Tour.

Lake Michigan has enough fish for both commercial and sport fishing, and it is rich in brown trout, chinook and coho salmon, lake trout, perch, largemouth bass, rainbow trout, steelhead, smallmouth bass, and walleye. The towns of Muskegon and North Muskegon used to be industrial powerhouses in the mids. Muskegon Lake is homeport to a number of yacht clubs, and sailing on the lake is very popular.

Other sports are power boating, kite-boarding, water skiing, pontooning, and paddle boating. There are 13 marinas and seven launch sites, and the lake is host to a number of sailboat races. Regattas are also held regularly in the warmer months.

Fishing is a favored activity on Muskegon Lake. Anglers come for the walleye, northern pike, largemouth and smallmouth bass, crappie, bluegill, Chinook salmon, brown and lake trout, and catfish. They are glacial by origin and were separated from Lake Michigan by a sandbar created over time. Little Glen Lake covers 1, acres, and its maximum depth is 13 feet. The Little Glen Lake is surrounded by rolling sand dunes and forests. There is a public boat launch on Little Glen Lake as well as a number of private marinas.

Alligator Hill is located in the northern part of Little Glen Lake and is wonderful to explore by kayak or canoe. Swimming and water-skiing are also popular, but fishing is the king, especially for yellow perch, northern pike, smallmouth bass, and brown and lake trout. The views are spectacular, the water is crystal clear, and the bottom is sandy, perfect for kids splashing and parents swimming. The lake has plenty of fish and four small islands for exploring. Another small island opened to the public is owned by the Gerald Oleson Foundation.

There are private boat ramps all around the lake and two public boat ramps at Crescent Shores Boat Launch and Gilbert Park. The lake is full of bluegill, green sunfish, brown bullhead catfish, muskellunge, largemouth bass, northern pike, rock bass, pumpkinseed sunfish, smallmouth bass, yellow bullhead catfish, walleye, and yellow perch. Their shorelines are mostly shallow and sandy, creating great swimming beaches for kids. Water skiing, pontooning, jet skiing, sailing, wind surfing, power-boating, and paddling are also very popular.

Most of the lakes are fairly shallow. The deepest is North Manistique Lake at about 50 ft. While all lakes are rich in fish, they vary in the species they have, and anglers know where to go for their favorites: Most lakes have public boat ramps. The town of Curtis, located on the south end of Big Manistique Lake, hosts a number of festivals such as Oktoberfest, Curtis Winter Carnival, Art on The Lake, and a spectacular Fourth of July celebration with extravagant fireworks over the lake.

Things to Do in St. The lake has 28 miles of shoreline and was once a Native American trade route. The lake offers fun year-round, with ice fishing or snowmobiling in the winter on the mile long trail, surrounded by beautiful dense forests of mostly maples, red oak, aspen white cedar, spruce, pine, and tamarac.

The trail is also popular among horseback riders and hikers in the summer. Several public boat ramps allow fishermen easy access to the spots rich in bass, smelt, trout, yellow perch, northern pike, and walleye. The lake became popular among tourists at the beginning of the 20th century, and there are still a few resort camps on its shores. Dense woods around the lake give the area a wild, natural look, and they are home to a number of wildlife species such as deer and wild turkeys, eagles, loons, and other birds.

The lake is very popular for waterskiing, jet skiing, tubing, and swimming. Rowboats, canoes, and kayaks are available for rental all around the lake. There is a small marina at one end of the lake with public access for the boaters and basic boating necessities. Paradise Lake is tannin-stained, and it is the perfect environment for largemouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish, northern pike, rock bass, walleye, smallmouth bass, and yellow perch.

The lake is fairly shallow and is endangered by invasive species such as Eurasian milfoil and zebra mussels. Fishing is popular year-round; there is ice fishing in the winter, and in the summer you can see fishing boats any time of the day, with anglers looking for bluegill, pike, perch, and bass.

No motor boats are permitted on the lake, keeping the lake quiet and natural. Perch Lake is completely surrounded by the ,acre Traverse City State Forest, a paradise for hikers, bikers, and horseback riders.

As the business grew, many Midwestern lumber barons built luxury homes along the lake shore, and fancy resorts started cropping up. Many artesian mineral springs in the area were believed to be good for the health, adding to the attraction. Some of those resorts have been renovated and are still around. One resort had a deep-water marina for large Great Lakes steamers.

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