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The role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains , but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation.
Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew , as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit. The German Heinrich Kubis was the world's first flight attendant, in He also attended to the famous LZ Hindenburg and was on board when it burst into flames.
He survived by jumping out a window when it neared the ground. Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term " chief steward " as used in maritime transport terminology. The term purser and chief steward are often used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations.
This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime tradition i. Due to international conventions and agreements, in which all ships' personnel who sail internationally are similarly documented by their respective countries, the U. Merchant Marine assigns such duties to the chief steward in the overall rank and command structure of which pursers are not positionally represented or rostered.
Imperial Airways of the United Kingdom had "cabin boys" or "stewards"; in the s. Lead flight attendants would in many instances also perform the role of purser, steward, or chief steward in modern aviation terminology.
The first female flight attendant was a year-old registered nurse named Ellen Church. Other airlines followed suit, hiring nurses to serve as flight attendants, then called "stewardesses" or "air hostesses", on most of their flights. In the United States, the job was one of only a few in the s to permit women, which, coupled with the Great Depression , led to large numbers of applicants for the few positions available.
Two thousand women applied for just 43 positions offered by Transcontinental and Western Airlines in December Female flight attendants rapidly replaced male ones, and by , they had all but taken over the role. A New York Times article described the requirements:.
The girls who qualify for hostesses must be petite; weight to pounds; height 5 feet to 5 feet 4 inches; age 20 to 26 years. Add to that the rigid physical examination each must undergo four times every year, and you are assured of the bloom that goes with perfect health.
Three decades later, a New York Times classified ad for stewardesses at Eastern Airlines listed these requirements:.
Appearance was considered as one of the most important factors to become a stewardess. At that time, airlines believed that the exploitation of female sexuality would increase their profits; thus the uniforms of female flight attendants were often formfitting, complete with white gloves and high heels.
In the United States, they were required to be unmarried and were fired if they decided to wed. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of age discrimination, weight requirements, and bans on marriage. As there will be 41, new airliners by , Boeing expects , new cabin crew members from till then: A study found that higher instances of breast cancer , melanoma , uterine , gastrointestinal , cervical , and thyroid cancers in flight attendants.
The primary role of a flight attendant is to ensure passenger safety. In addition to this, flight attendants are often tasked with customer service duties such as serving meals and drinks, as a secondary responsibility.
The number of flight attendants required on flights are mandated by international safety regulations. For planes with up to 19 passenger seats, no flight attendant is needed. The majority of flight attendants for most airlines are female, though a substantial number of males have entered the industry since Prior to each flight, flight attendants attend a safety briefing with the pilots and lead flight attendant.
During this briefing, they go over safety and emergency checklists, the locations and amounts of emergency equipment and other features specific to that aircraft type. Boarding particulars are verified, such as special needs passengers, small children traveling as unaccompanied or VIPs. Weather conditions are discussed including anticipated turbulence. Prior to each flight a safety check is conducted to ensure all equipment such as life-vests , torches flashlights and firefighting equipment are on board, in the right quantity, and in proper condition.
Any unserviceable or missing items must be reported and rectified prior to takeoff. They must monitor the cabin for any unusual smells or situations. They assist with the loading of carry-on baggage , checking for weight, size and dangerous goods. They make sure those sitting in emergency exit rows are willing and able to assist in an evacuation and move those who are not willing or able out of the row into another seat.
They then must do a safety demonstration or monitor passengers as they watch a safety video. They then must "secure the cabin" ensuring tray tables are stowed, seats are in their upright positions, armrests down and carry-ons stowed correctly and seat belts are fastened prior to takeoff. All the service between boarding and take-off is called Pre Take off Service. When not performing customer service duties, flight attendants must periodically conduct cabin checks and listen for any unusual noises or situations.
Checks must also be done on the lavatory to ensure the smoke detector hasn't been disabled or destroyed and to restock supplies as needed.
Regular cockpit checks must be done to ensure the health and safety of the pilot s. They must also respond to call lights dealing with special requests. During turbulence, flight attendants must ensure the cabin is secure.
Prior to landing, all loose items, trays and rubbish must be collected and secured along with service and galley equipment. All hot liquids must be disposed of. A final cabin check must then be completed prior to landing. It is vital that flight attendants remain aware as the majority of emergencies occur during takeoff and landing.
They also assist any special needs passengers and small children off the airplane and escort children, while following the proper paperwork and ID process to escort them to the designated person picking them up. Flight attendants are trained to deal with a wide variety of emergencies, and are trained in first aid.
More frequent situations may include a bleeding nose, illness, small injuries, intoxicated passengers, aggressive and anxiety stricken passengers. Emergency training includes rejected takeoffs , emergency landings , cardiac and in-flight medical situations, smoke in the cabin, fires, depressurization , on-board births and deaths, dangerous goods and spills in the cabin, emergency evacuations , hijackings , and water landings. On most commercial airliners, flight attendants receive various forms of notification on board the aircraft in the form of audible chimes and colored lights above their stations.
Typically, the following chimes and colors are used:. While not necessarily the most-senior crew members on a flight in years of service to their respective carrier , Chief Pursers can have varying levels of "in-flight" or "on board" bidding seniority or tenure in relation to their flying partners.
To reach this position, a crew member requires some minimum years of service as flight attendant. Further training is mandatory, and Chief Pursers typically earn a higher salary than flight attendants because of the added responsibility and managerial role. The Purser is in charge of the cabin crew, in a specific section of a larger aircraft, or the whole aircraft itself if the purser is the highest ranking.
On board a larger aircraft, Pursers assist the Chief Purser in managing the cabin. Pursers are flight attendants or a related job, typically with an airline for several years prior to application for, and further training to become a purser, and normally earn a higher salary than flight attendants because of the added responsibility and supervisory role. Flight attendants are normally trained in the hub or headquarters city of an airline over a period that may run from four weeks to six months, depending on the country and airline.
The main focus of training is safety, and attendants will be checked out for each type of aircraft in which they work. Other airlines were to also send their attendants to the school.
However, during the fare wars, the school's viability declined and it closed around Safety training includes, but is not limited to: In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration requires flight attendants on aircraft with 20 or more seats and used by an air carrier for transportation to hold a Certificate of Demonstrated Proficiency. This is not considered to be the equivalent of an airman certificate license , although it is issued on the same card stock.
It shows that a level of required training has been met. It is not limited to the air carrier at which the attendant is employed although some initial documents showed the airlines where the holders were working , and is the attendant's personal property. Either or both of these may be earned depending upon the general type of aircraft, propeller or turbojet , on which the holder has trained. There are also training schools, not affiliated with any particular airline, where students generally not only undergo generic, though otherwise practically identical, training to flight attendants employed by an airline, but also take curriculum modules to help them gain employment.
These schools often use actual airline equipment for their lessons, though some are equipped with full simulator cabins capable of replicating a number of emergency situations. Multilingual flight attendants are often in demand to accommodate international travellers. Most airlines have height requirements for safety reasons, making sure that all flight attendants can reach overhead safety equipment.
Regional carriers using small aircraft with low ceilings can have height restrictions. The first flight attendant uniforms were designed to be durable, practical, and inspire confidence in passengers. In the s, the first female flight attendants dressed in uniforms resembling nurses 'outfits. Other airlines, such as Eastern Air Lines , actually dressed female flight attendants in nurses' uniforms.
Both male and female flight attendants for Hawaiian Airlines wear aloha shirts as their uniform. Many early uniforms had a strongly military appearance; hats, jackets , and skirts showed simple straight lines and military details like epaulettes and brass buttons. Many uniforms had a summer and winter version, differentiated by colours and fabrics appropriate to the season: But as the role of women in the air grew, and airline companies began to realise the publicity value of their female flight attendants, more feminine lines and colours began to appear in the late s and early s.
Some airlines began to commission designs from high-end department stores and still others called in noted designers or even milliners to create distinctive and attractive apparel. During the s, Pacific Southwest Airlines PSA was known for brightly colored female flight attendant uniforms that included short miniskirts. In the early s, the uniform changed to hotpants. Since the s to present, Asian airlines, especially national flag carrier ones, usually feature the traditional dress and fabrics of their respective country in their female flight attendants' uniform.
It was meant as a marketing strategy to showcase their national culture as well as to convey welcoming warmth and hospitality. For example, Thai Airways flight attendants are required to change from their corporate purple suits into traditional Thai costume prior to passengers boarding. During the mids, several US-based airlines required female flight attendants to wear shoes with heels. Minimum heel heights ranged from one-half inch to the two inches mandated by USAir.
Flight attendants are generally expected to show a high level of personal grooming such as appropriate use of cosmetics and thorough personal hygiene.
Flight attendants must not have any tattoos visible when a uniform is worn. These requirements are designed to give the airlines a positive presentation.
Sac Arrow , Jan 22, Jun 11, Messages: My own special place. SkyDog58 , Jan 22, Tantalum and mscard88 like this. Aug 18, Messages: So I'm taxing in to the terminal, and another of our flights is taxing outbound. I know the crew, 2 cool ladies, so I ask on company frequency if they still call it a cockpit.
Captain was quick, "negative it's a box office" in her best NYC accent. Briar Rabbit , abqtj , Norman and 5 others like this. Jun 13, Messages: NM or the emergency room Zeldman , Jan 22, Jul 3, Messages: Eclectic, AL Display Name: Hank S , Jan 22, Nov 4, Messages: Vail, Arizona Display Name: Several origins take your pick: The word cockpit was originally a sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship, and later the location of the ship's rudder controls.
By the 's, " cockpit " was being used as a metaphor for any scene of combat, especially areas such as parts of Belgium and France known as traditional battlefields. The first known reference to the term " cockpit " comes from the rather barbaric sport of cockfighting and refers to the pit in which the fights occurred.
Even today, a room on the lower deck of a yacht or motor boat where the crew quarters are located is often called a cockpit. Timbeck2 , Jan 22, Feb 22, Messages: Tantalum , Jan 22, Mar 19, Messages: I still call it a cockpit unless it happens to be a box office , and I recently found out that they use the same terminology on a boat. I knew someone who called it the "flight station".
We were flying a Lear. That sounds like something larger than the airplane. Just as they have been mentored in their careers, Mika and Beth continue to mentor other women and build strong relationships with female pilots.
We understand what it took for each of us to get here. In her 28 years with American and additional time at Northwest Airlines, Janice has seen the growth of women who fly commercial evolve. With a little more than 4, female pilots in commercial aviation, Janice appreciates the increased number of women taking on the profession as she mentors through organizations like Women in Aviation, National Gay Pilots Association and Organization of Black Pilots.
She is determined to make sure the girl power among women with wings remains by instilling how rewarding the pilot profession is and inspiring young women to fly. Skip to main content. Female pilots break barriers in aviation, look to empower the next generation.
American interviews and class dates. Page of Thanks for the info!
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