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Wiesmann GmbH is a German automobile manufacturer that specialises in hand-built custom convertibles. The business was temporarily closed in May , but is set to return with a new model, powered by a BMW M division-sourced V8 engine.

The relaunch of the Wiesmann brand has more than one model in the pipeline and the pre-development phase of the car has been completed. The company's first roadster left the workshop in The company, which made around hand-built cars each year, used a gecko logo because they claimed their cars "stick to the road like geckos to a wall". Wiesmann planned to begin exporting vehicles to the USA by , however, factors including a poor exchange rates and the high costs of modifying and testing cars in order to make them road-legal in the US stymied these plans.

The model was discontinued in order to give way to the new slightly modified model named MF 3. The primary difference between the MF 3 and the MF 30 was the new engine. MF3 came with a 5-speed manual transmission as basic, and a 6-speed sequential gearbox as an option. Another additional option were the inch rims running on front: The GT is a closed two-seater with more power than the other models, intended for long distance touring.

The GT was first produced in The GT MF5 roadster, first produced in , was limited to just 55 cars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Germany portal Cars portal Companies portal. Martin Wiesmann Friedhelm Wiesmann. Automotive industry in Germany. Automotive industry Economy of Germany Transport in Germany. Defunct companies and marques above are shown in italics. Retrieved from " https: Wiesmann Retro-style automobiles Luxury motor vehicle manufacturers Sports car manufacturers Companies established in Companies based in North Rhine-Westphalia Defunct motor vehicle manufacturers of Germany German brands Luxury vehicles Luxury brands.

Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references Pages using deprecated image syntax Commons category with local link different than on Wikidata Coordinates not on Wikidata. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 7 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

MacPherson strut front suspension with transverse link, stabilizer. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wiesmann vehicles.

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A new way to practice yoga. Namaste your way into the day with our canna savvy gurus and over 60 minutes of beautifully guided yoga with some of the most popular and talented yoga instructors in San Diego. West Coast Cannabis Tours will provide yoga mats, bongs, and pipes. She currently holds space for those looking to embark on a journey of the self through the self, with the assistance of the cannabis plant. She believes the process of expanding the mind and tuning in to your most authentic self can provide a real experience for each participant.

All yoga levels are welcome. All participants must be over the age of 21 with a valid ID. We take every step to provide you with the absolute best experience during your activity.

Bring your Own Cannabis Questions? We take every step we can to provide you the absolute best experience during your activity. We provide adults with unique and innovative things to do in San Diego California that are always cannabis friendly. Inclement weather influences the movement, productivity, and mortality rate of white-tailed deer by reducing growth and seasonal availability of food and by placing an energy stress on animals, making them more vulnerable to predation [ , , , , ].

A winter severity index that incorporated wind chill, snow depth, and the ability of the snow to support the body weight of white-tailed deer was positively correlated with mortality during 3 winters in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan [ ]. Studies of an unhunted population on Huntington Wildlife Forest, New York, reported that white-tailed deer densities fluctuated widely, primarily in response to winter severity. The principal factor driving this fluctuation was the length of time white-tailed deer were confined by deep snow to winter rangelands.

Populations grew only when winters were milder than average. During average to severe winters, populations remained constant or declined Underwood cited in [ ]. In the oak-hickory forest region of the East, harsh winters during years of acorn crop failure can adversely affect white-tailed deer production, especially on overpopulated rangelands [ ] see Diet.

Because survival may be heavily influenced by deep snow, white-tailed deer are potentially affected by large-scale climatic fluctuations, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO , that influence local temperature and precipitation patterns [ ].

Researchers in Minnesota suggested that increased snow depths resulting from the NAO led to high white-tailed deer mortality and low recruitment and ultimately reduced white-tailed deer densities 3 years later [ , ]. Conversely, on Anticosti Island, Quebec, at the northern limit of the white-tailed deer's range, Simard and others [ ] did not find negative effects of winter NAO on female survival.

In the Southwest, periodic droughts are common and may result in high white-tailed deer mortality through lowered plant productivity [ 10 , ]. Drought can reduce hiding cover, which may make white-tailed deer fawns more susceptible to predation [ 19 ]. In a study in south-central Texas, reduced ground cover and poor nutrition due to severe drought resulted in high fawn mortality, especially due to predators, whereas fawn survival increased during the subsequent year when rainfall was higher and rangelands were improved.

This suggested that predation was less if hiding cover was adequate [ 59 ]. A severe, year-long drought in desert shrub-desert grassland habitat of southeastern Arizona caused an apparent decline in local white-tailed deer and mule deer populations [ 10 ].

Populations of white-tailed deer were affected by severity of drought during early summer and fall in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. In arid western Texas, recruitment was strongly and positively related to March through July precipitation totals.

In eastern Texas, there was a negative relationship between recruitment and precipitation. The positive relationship to precipitation in western Texas was attributed to increased vegetation production. The increased production likely enhanced hiding cover and increased forage abundance. Negative relationships between recruitment and precipitation in the wetter regions of Texas were attributed to possible reduced forage quality due to dilution of forage nutrients and increased prevalence of diseases, parasites, and red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta [ ].

White-tailed deer are classified as browsers because they primarily consume browse and forbs [ ]. However, they are opportunistic and consume a wide variety of plant species and plant parts [ , , ]. For example, more than different plant species are consumed by white-tailed deer in Arizona Knipe cited in [ ]. They consume the stalks, flowers, fruits, and seeds of grasses and forbs.

They eat the buds, fruits, seeds particularly acorns , stems, leaves, and bark of trees and shrubs [ , ]. Diversity apparently is important in the white-tailed deer's diet [ ]. Cacti and other succulents may be seasonally important in some areas [ , , , , ].

White-tailed deer also eat ferns [ 79 , ], fungi [ 79 , , , , ], and lichens [ , ]. In agricultural areas, crops are an important food source [ , , ].

Orchards, nurseries, vineyards, and lawns are also common food sources wherever available [ , , ]. Generally, younger, less fibrous plants and plant parts are preferred over old plants and plant parts [ 79 , ]. White-tailed deer sometimes consume aquatic vegetation [ , , ] and may opportunistically eat birds, fish, and insects [ ]. Forbs, browse, soft mast berries, drupes, and pomes , and hard mast acorns, beechnuts, and hickory nuts are the most important white-tailed deer forages throughout the much of species' range [ , , ].

The author split the species' range into 5 regions: Midwest, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest. Spring diets in the Midwest and Northwest contained less browse and forbs and more crops and grass than in other regions. Diets were most similar among regions in summer. Fall diets varied greatly among regions, with mast particularly important in the Midwest and Southeast.

Browse, crops, and grass were particularly important in the Northwest in fall, whereas lichens and fungi were important in the Northeast. Browse and forbs composed most of the diet in the Southwest. In winter, there was a strong latitudinal gradient in browse use: Forbs were important during winter in the Southwest. Mast was most important in winter diets in the Midwest and Southeast, and grass was least important in the Northeast [ ]. Forage availability greatly influences white-tailed deer food habits [ ].

Forbs are generally more digestible and richer in nutrients than browse, and white-tailed deer strongly prefer them over browse. Abundance and biomass of forbs on the landscape depend on many biological and environmental influences, particularly season of year, amount and timing of rainfall, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil.

Intensity of livestock grazing and land management practices also influence forb production and thus white-tailed deer diets. Compared to forbs, browse plants provide more seasonally stable food supplies and are less affected by periods of low rainfall and intensity of livestock use. The amount of browse in white-tailed deer diets generally varies inversely with abundance of forbs. In habitats where forbs are abundant most of the year, white-tailed deer generally eat less browse than in habitats where forbs are rare [ ].

Although browse may not be preferred, its abundance and year-round availability make it important [ 79 , ]. Although browse and forbs are often the dominant forage classes in white-tailed deer diets, in some areas grasses and sedges Carex spp. New growth of cool-season grasses may be important in fall [ 79 , ]. High-quality forages, such as crops and mast, compose large portions of white-tailed deer diets if available. Crops are "exceedingly important" to white-tailed deer during summer and fall in the Midwest and along riparian areas in northwestern portions of the species' range [ ].

Because they are highly digestible and nutritious, most agricultural crops are preferred when available, regardless of the availability of naturally occurring foods [ 79 ]. Mast is often highly preferred by white-tailed deer and is often a critical source of forage; however, its availability is seasonal [ ]. Common sources of mast include persimmons Diospyros spp.

Honey mesquite pods often become an important source of food during summer droughts in the southwestern and south-central United States [ ]. Among mast types, acorns are a highly preferred food [ 79 , , ]. In many habitats, although acorns are heavily used, they are not considered a "critical" component of the white-tailed deer's diet. However, in some southeastern ranges, such as in the southern Appalachians or the southern Coastal Plain, acorns are considered critical, and white-tailed deer population dynamics can be driven by acorn production [ ].

Feldhamer [ ] noted that acorn availability is especially critical where the quality and quantity of spring or summer forage is inadequate for white-tailed deer to develop the energy reserves necessary for winter survival.

In Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area, Tennessee, mean body mass of hunter-harvested male and female fawns and yearlings over 13 years was positively correlated with acorn yield the previous fall. Acorn yields ranged from 0.

Other age and sex groups showed no effect. Body mass of males was more strongly correlated with the previous year's mast index than with the current year's index, indicating a lag effect [ ]. In contrast, in Craig County, Virginia, weights of 1. This might have been because they were harvested too early in the winter for an effect to be evident [ ]. Wentworth and others cited in [ ] found that adult reproductive rates in the southern Appalachians were not affected by acorn abundance, but yearling reproduction was greater when acorns were abundant.

Some researchers documented either an increased percentage of yearlings in white-tailed deer populations following years with good acorn crops or a decrease in the percent of yearlings following years with poor acorn crops e.

High-preference winter foods for white-tailed deer in the northern Great Lakes and Ontario include northern whitecedar, red maple Acer rubrum , eastern hemlock, American mountain-ash Sorbus americana , and alternate-leaf dogwood Cornus alternifolia. Second-level preference species include eastern white pine, yellow birch, mountain maple A.

Next are aspen Populus spp. Speckled alder Alnus incana subsp. Preferred foods in the Northeast include the following species and genera: A review stated that the most prevalent plants in white-tailed deer diets in the Southwest are hairy mountain-mahogany Cercocarpus breviflorus , Wright's eriogonum Eriogonum wrightii , falsemesquite calliandra Calliandra eriophylla , range ratany Krameria parvifolia , and junipers, primarily alligator juniper J. Red mangrove, black mangrove, Florida Keys blackbead Pithecellobium keyense , redgal Morinda royoc , Florida silverpalm Coccothrinax argentata , Key thatch palm Thrinax microcarpa , and pencilflower Stylosanthes spp.

In Montana and South Dakota, some preferred browse species include chokecherry, kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi , serviceberry, skunkbush sumac Rhus trilobata , common snowberry Symphoricarpos albus , and dogwood [ ]. Weather and growing conditions affect white-tailed deer forage preferences. Forbs that dominate white-tailed deer diets during spring or high rainfall years may be replaced by more heat or drought-tolerant species during summer or dry years.

Browse increases in importance in white-tailed deer diets during droughts because lack of rainfall reduces forb abundance [ ]. During a drought year in southeastern Arizona, white-tailed deer and mule deer diets changed from succulent deciduous forage to drought-tolerant evergreen species [ 10 ].

Ocotillo Fouquieria splendens did not rank high as a forage plant in southern Arizona; however, its rapid response to available moisture from summer rains produced green forage that was avidly sought by white-tailed deer when available [ ]. Deep snow makes forage less accessible to white-tailed deer. White-tailed deer may meet nutritional requirements during deep snow periods by foraging on materials found above the snow, such as arboreal lichens or conifer browse [ , , ]. They also create networks of trails in snow and may dig and root to obtain food from beneath the snow.

In areas with deep snow, they migrate to locations with snow conditions that permit better locomotion and easier foraging [ ] see Cover and foraging habitats. Fire may affect white-tailed diet composition. For more information, see Indirect Fire Effects. Diet composition varies by sex and age of individual animals, which may result from spatial segregation and use of separate habitats [ ] see Age and sex.

Reviews on this topic are available: White-tailed deer foraging effects: White-tailed deer are sometimes called "keystone herbivores" [ , , , ] or "ecosystem engineers" [ 17 , 71 ] because of their foraging impacts under high population densities. Because white-tailed deer forage selectively, they can influence plant species composition and diversity by consuming palatable species, which may allow unpalatable species to gain dominance and eventually alter plant community dynamics and succession [ 70 , 71 , , , , , , , , ].

Overabundant populations commonly reduce tree diversity in boreal and temperate forests [ 71 ]. They can influence rates of nutrient cycling by altering litter quantity and quality and via urination and defecation [ 70 , 71 , , , ]. Also, white-tailed deer may affect plant growth [ 71 , ].

They exert cascading effects on animals by competing directly for resources with other herbivores and by modifying the composition and structure of habitats [ 6 , 17 , 70 , 71 , , , , , ]. Maximum animal species diversity in a stand often appears to occur at moderate browsing levels, whereas heavy white-tailed deer browsing reduces vegetative cover and diversity in the understory, which may lead to reduced habitat availability for other animals [ 71 ].

Studies have shown that heavy white-tailed deer foraging is correlated with declines in native plant abundance and increases in nonnative plant abundance [ 70 , ]. Reviews describing white-tailed deer foraging effects are available: For information about white-tailed deer effects on postfire succession, see Effects of herbivory on vegetation. White-tailed deer are generalists that can use a variety of habitats. They are often associated with shrublands, woodlands, and forests throughout their range in North America.

Woody vegetation is used for forage and cover. Disturbed communities that produce abundant forbs or browse often support relatively high densities of white-tailed deer. Important components of habitat for white-tailed deer vary across their distribution.

In northern and eastern ranges, white-tailed deer are associated with forests and spend the winter in yards to avoid deep snow and mitigate cold temperatures. In western ranges, mesic habitats and riparian zones are important for foraging and cover.

In southern regions, optimum habitat generally consists of openings containing herbaceous forage species interspersed in a woodland matrix [ ]. In general, white-tailed deer herds are most productive in areas with a variety of habitat types and diversity of stand age classes [ 3 , 79 , , , ].

Cover and foraging habitats: White-tailed deer require water and forage —particularly forbs, shrubs, and mast—that is palatable and nutritious year-round. Open areas and early-seral communities are important white-tailed deer foraging habitats in many areas. White-tailed deer may require forests or dense shrub thickets for cover [ 79 , , ].

They persist in habitats relatively free of woody plants; however, population densities in open habitats are lower than in those with woody cover [ ]. White-tailed deer often prefer edge habitats where forage and cover are in close proximity [ 30 , 63 , , ]. Cover can be categorized as hiding, thermal, or snow interception cover. Hiding cover preferences vary depending on season and sex and age of the individual animal. In general, females with fawns make greater use of areas with dense cover than males [ ] see Age and sex.

Hiding cover requirements also change with season. During hunting season, white-tailed deer typically avoid open habitats and move to habitats with dense cover [ , ] see Predation risk. Thermal cover protects white-tailed deer from extremely hot or cold temperatures [ ]. Tall, woody vegetation along drainages and floodplains is often particularly important for thermal cover [ ]. In Prairie County, Montana, female white-tailed deer used hardwood draws and mesic shrublands heavily in every season but winter.

During mild winters or periods of little snow cover they moved widely and used a variety of habitats, but during severe winter weather they concentrated in and around hardwood draws interspersed among badlands, apparently for increased shelter [ ]. In the Southwest, woody plants, cacti, tall grasses and forbs, and landscape features—including rocks and canyons—provide hiding and thermal cover. In general, woody plants are the primary cover for mature white-tailed deer, although mid- to tall bunchgrasses may be important for fawns [ ].

In parts of the Rocky Mountains, dense stands of juniper and ponderosa pine, cottonwood and aspen communities, marshes, and willow riparian areas provide hiding and thermal cover [ 69 , ]. According to Olson [ ] "ideal" summer thermal cover for white-tailed deer in Wyoming consists of sapling trees or shrubs at least 5 feet 1.

Mattfeld cited in [ ] found that a pound 20 kg white-tailed deer would expend 7 to 8 times as much energy walking in 16 inches 40 cm of snow as walking on bare ground. In northern regions, white-tailed deer often move from areas of abundant food but little shelter to areas of shelter but little food in winter for protection from cold and during periods of deep snow [ ] see Seasonal movements and migration.

In northern regions of the West, such as British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, white-tailed deer use mature conifer forests during periods with deep snow and cold temperatures [ , , , ]. In the hardwood and conifer forests of the Northeast and Great Lakes in winter, white-tailed deer frequently congregate in yards [ , , ].

In some areas, white-tailed deer abandon historical yards for nearby residential areas [ ]. White-tailed deer in agricultural areas of the southern Great Lakes region are less likely to use dense cover in winter than white-tailed deer in forested areas of the upper Great Lakes region, perhaps because their better body condition enables them to withstand cold weather [ ]. Yards are often located in closed-canopy uplands or lowland conifer forests that provide thermal cover, reduced wind velocity, and decreased snow depths compared to adjacent areas [ 33 , 94 , , ].

Mature northern whitecedar is the preferred forest type for yards because it provides cover as well as high-quality forage [ 33 , 94 , , , ]. In northern Michigan, even-aged stands of mature northern whitecedar provided the narrowest thermal range, the highest and most stable relative humidity, the least wind flow, and the firmest snow among 6 habitats monitored in conifer and hardwood swamps. No habitat type in this study provided both optimal cover and adequate food for white-tailed deer [ ].

Dense stands of spruce, eastern hemlock, jack pine, and balsam fir are also used as yards [ 33 , 94 , , , , ]. Mixed stands opened by disturbances such as logging or fire may offer the best combination of food and cover across a landscape [ , ].

In Maine, suitable yarding habitats included spruce-fir, northern whitecedar, and spruce-fir-hardwood forests.

White-tailed deer may also concentrate on sunny, windswept slopes during periods of deep snow [ ]. Cover requirements of white-tailed deer are generally less in habitats with productive forbs and in moderate climates [ , , ]. The need for cover also depends on the amount of human disturbance, topography, time of day, and sex and age of individuals [ ]. Among foraging habitats, quaking aspen communities are particularly important for white-tailed deer [ ].

In western Canada the quaking aspen parklands and quaking aspen-dominated boreal forests provide "prime" white-tailed deer habitat. Both quaking aspen and cottonwood are preferred browse in the Rocky Mountain region as far south as Arizona [ , ].

Quaking aspen is an important source of food in the Great Lakes [ ]. Common foraging habitats used by white-tailed deer in the Northeast include mature forests, early-successional forests, old fields, wetlands, and agricultural lands [ 79 ]. Although mature forests provide important winter cover, many mature forests do not provide much forage for white-tailed deer except in fall, when acorns are abundant. Early-successional forests are high-quality habitats for white-tailed deer because preferred trees, shrubs, and herbs are usually abundant [ 79 , 95 , , ].

In spring, white-tailed deer use old fields heavily because succulent young grasses are available before woodlands leaf out. Use of old fields usually declines in summer when woodland foods become abundant and grasses mature. Old field use may increase again in fall, when woodland foods are depleted. Substantial use of old fields may continue through winter in areas where snow cover is rare or persists for only short periods.

Fields with shrub and tree regeneration offer an even greater diversity of foods as well as cover for white-tailed deer. Wetlands can provide food and cover for white-tailed deer during summer. Agricultural lands in the Northeast provide abundant nutritious foods for white-tailed deer during summer and early fall, but most agricultural lands offer little cover during most of the year [ 79 ].

In the Midwest agricultural subregion, snow cover is rarely substantial enough to be detrimental to white-tailed deer [ ]. In the mild, wet climate of coastal Washington, where forage grows throughout the year, Columbian white-tailed deer used Sitka spruce parkland for resting and more open types for feeding [ ].

In Douglas County, Oregon, Columbian white-tailed deer used Oregon white oak-Pacific madrone woodland, riparian, and selectively logged or partially cleared Oregon white oak-Pacific madrone savanna most frequently. White-tailed deer occur in habitats in all stages of forest succession. Early-seral communities are important white-tailed deer foraging habitats in many areas, whereas mature forests may be used for cover in northern regions [ 79 , , , , ] see Cover and foraging habitat.

Litvaitis [ ] identified white-tailed deer as a facultative or opportunistic user of early-successional habitats in the Northeast. He noted that while white-tailed deer can respond to the availability of these habitats at local and regional scales, the resources they require are also available in other stages of forest succession and in nonforested habitats [ ].

Although not dependent upon early-seral habitats, white-tailed deer generally benefit from early-successional vegetation that establishes after fire, logging, hurricanes, or other disturbances [ 87 ]. Singer [ ] analyzed white-tailed use of plant communities in relation to disturbance regime in northwestern Glacier National Park. Preferred habitats in summer and fall included grasslands and lodgepole pine Pinus contorta savannas maintained by frequent surface fire and black cottonwood Populus balsamifera subsp.

Preferred habitats in winter, particularly when snow was deep, were Douglas-fir and Engelmann spruce communities. Douglas-fir communities used by white-tailed deer in winter were subjected to repeated surface fires.

Densities in 4 small 0. However, white-tailed deer were never observed in a Douglas-fir stand that established after a stand-replacing crown fire 73 years prior. The author concluded that white-tailed deer in the area would be unable to take advantage of seral communities resulting from crown fires unless the fires were small and located adjacent to cover, but that white-tailed deer could use habitats where canopies remain after surface fires [ ].

For more information, see Rocky Mountains. Clearcuts and mature forests often provide complementary benefits to white-tailed deer [ ]. In spring and summer, white-tailed deer forage species are typically more abundant and used more intensively in and around clearcuts than in adjacent older forests. In fall and winter, mature forests generally provide the best foraging for white-tailed deer because they are the primary source of mast and produce about the same quantity of broadleaf evergreen foliage as clearcuts.

In contrast, midsuccessional forests after crown closure reduces browse availability and before onset of substantial mast production provide less white-tailed forage than clearcuts and mature forests [ ].

The white-tailed deer is often considered an "edge species" because it does best in landscapes where cover and food are in close proximity [ ]. White-tailed deer commonly use edges between clearcut and mature forests [ ] see Logging. Edge habitat is generally considered important to deer because of high habitat diversity in ecotones and easy access to more than one habitat type [ 30 , 63 ]. In contrast, in southeastern Arizona's Mexican pinyon Pinus cembroides stands in Madrean oak-conifer communities, both browse use and the rate of deposition of white-tailed deer pellet groups in burned stands 6.

Like mule deer, white-tailed deer use of edge habitats may be greater where there is less interspersion of forage and cover. A review stated that studies finding little response of deer to edges tended to be in areas that had a high degree of interspersion of forage habitats and cover habitats or had a fine-grained interspersion where forage and cover were available in the same habitat [ ].

On Anticosti Island, Quebec, July through November habitat selection by female white-tailed deer was driven mainly by forage acquisition rather than a trade-off between forage acquisition and proximity to protective cover. The authors suggested that preference for open—forest edges may be reduced when predation is absent and conspecific density is high [ ].

Outside of the breeding season, white-tailed deer females and adult males are segregated, and they use habitats, space, and forage differently during periods of segregation e.

Spatial segregation of sexes tends to be most pronounced around parturition. See Sex differences in burn use for more information. Differences in habitat use between sexes reflect differences in nutritional requirements due to body size, reproductive status, social behavior , and region [ 94 , ]. A review stated that among the hypotheses proposed to explain sexual segregation, differences in nutritional requirements between males and females and selection of habitats by females with fawns to minimize predation have the best support in the literature [ ].

Although both sexes often select habitats with dense vegetation, several researchers found that males occurred on more open areas than females e. Females with fawns exhibited a stronger preference than males for blackbrush acacia-honey mesquite savanna with dense woody plant cover.

In the latter habitat, preferred forbs were less abundant than in more open habitats. Males had higher kidney-fat indices than females, indicating better nutritional status.

Females possibly preferred areas of dense woody plant cover to avoid predators [ ]. On a year-round basis in northeastern Mexico, males preferred more open habitats than females, while females preferred habitats with denser woody canopy cover [ 28 ].

Sex differences in chest height and foot loading may affect individual habitat use in winter. Male white-tailed deer are taller than females and thus may be able to use habitats with deeper snow. Conversely, females have a slightly lower foot loading and thus may have an advantage in areas with crust or dense snow [ ]. In New Hampshire, adult male white-tailed deer often wintered separately from conspecifics and used habitats with deeper snow Laramie and White cited in [ ].

Stewart and others [ ] provide a review of sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. A review stated that antipredator strategies used by white-tailed deer include hiding in dense vegetation; using trails to outrun predators; going into water; and forming groups in open areas [ , ]. Yarding behavior may be an antipredator strategy. Some authors found that white-tailed deer using yards have higher survival rates than nonyarding white-tailed deer [ , ].

Trail systems within yards may enhance an animal's ability to escape gray wolves and coyotes [ 19 , ]. In contrast, Whitlaw and others [ ] found no differences in predator-caused mortality rates between yarding and nonyarding white-tailed deer populations in northern and southern New Brunswick.

Predators or human hunters may alter white-tailed deer habitat use, movements, diet, and behavior [ 94 ]. During hunting season, for example, white-tailed deer may move to habitats with dense cover and become more nocturnal [ ].

Mech [ , ] found that white-tailed deer densities in a declining white-tailed deer population tended to be greater along gray wolf pack territory buffer zones than in territory centers, possibly due to reduced risk of predation. On the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge in southern Texas, predation risk appeared to reduce segregation between male and female white-tailed deer. Males that otherwise used more open habitats increased their use of the blackbrush acacia-honey mesquite savanna as population density increased.

As spatial segregation between males and females decreased at the high population density, diets of both sexes shifted away from forbs toward more graminoids and browse, and shifts were more pronounced among males [ ]. Snow depth and hardness may affect white-tailed deer predation risk. In central Ontario's mixed-forest French River-Burwash ecosystem, white-tailed deer had a stronger positive association with predation risk defined as the frequency of a predator's occurrence across the landscape in compared with the previous winter.

The authors suggested this was due to deep, dense snow during that forced white-tailed deer to congregate in areas of shallower, light snow, where gray wolves typically hunt [ ]. Habitat type partly determined fawn susceptibility to predation in Illinois. Rohm and others cited in [ 19 ] examined causes of fawn mortality during 5 years in southern Illinois. Fawn survival was best explained by fawn age and landscape and forest characteristics.

The authors indicated that areas inhabited by surviving fawns had forest patches next to nonforest patches and contained more edge habitats. They speculated that these habitats were areas where coyotes were less successful at locating and killing fawns Rohm and others cited in [ 19 ]. Females with fawns appear to select fawning areas with reduced predation risk.

For more information, see Fawning areas. For information about how predation risk may affect use of burned areas, see White-tailed deer, predator, and fire interactions. White-tailed deer may avoid areas with abundant coarse woody debris. See Logging slash and Physical barriers for more information.

In most of the species' range, water requirements do not usually limit white-tailed deer distribution and abundance, but in arid regions the local distribution of white-tailed deer is influenced by the location of water [ , , , , , ].

In Arizona, when water becomes scarce in June, white-tailed deer especially pregnant does move closer to permanent water but disperse when summer rains start [ ]. Availability of drinking water did not appear to be a primary limiting factor for Key deer on Big Pine Key, but it may have limited year-round utilization of the outer Keys [ ]. White-tailed deer are reluctant to use a water source lacking adjacent cover [ 8 ].

Water requirements for white-tailed deer vary with weather, physiological state and activity of individuals, and moisture content of forage [ ]. Water developments appear to have benefited many deer populations in the arid Southwest [ ] see Water management. For reviews of white-tailed deer use of water in the Southwest, see Severson and Medina [ ] and Rosenstock and others [ ].

During and soon after parturition, female white-tailed deer prefer areas with concealment cover [ ]. For example, in the Black Hills, sites chosen by fawns in ponderosa pine forest typically had more vertical and horizontal cover than those found on randomly selected sites [ ]. In Iowa, fawns chose bed sites with more woody plant cover and less medium- to short-growing forb cover, vine cover, and liana cover than in surrounding areas, with fawns selecting sunny slopes on relatively cool days and shady slopes on relatively warm days [ ].

Depressions in pine flatwoods with saw-palmetto Serenoa repens provide shelter for fawns in Florida [ ]. According to a review, "ideal" fawning cover in Wyoming consists of areas with shrubs or small trees 2 to 6 feet 0. Poor concealment cover in fawning areas may result in high fawn mortality [ ]. In areas where concealment cover is limited, such as in portions of the Midwest, parturient females may travel long distances to locate suitable fawning habitat [ 94 , , ], but in areas with abundant cover, such as in the Southeast, cover for fawning is seldom deficient unless disturbances such as fire or clearcuts are very large [ ].

Livestock grazing may reduce important concealment cover [ ]. Information on state- and province-level protection status of animals in the United States and Canada is available at NatureServe , although recent changes in status may not be included. Successional changes since European-American exploitation, and particularly during the s, may have benefitted white-tailed deer in the Great Plains and Southwest. On many rangelands in these regions, cover and forage increased due to encroachment of woody plants onto areas formerly dominated by grasses due to historical livestock grazing practices, alterations of fire patterns, and possibly climatic shifts [ , , , ].

Arno and others [ 13 ] concluded that after , understory shrubs and fir saplings in western larch, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir forests in the Swan Valley, Montana, increased as a result of fire exclusion, which enhanced forage and cover for white-tailed deer on both summer and winter rangelands. The authors stated that predator control and hunting regulations may have further contributed to increased white-tailed deer populations in the early s.

The white-tailed deer population peaked in the mids. Populations then declined as forests canopies closed and understory shrubs declined. Heavy timber harvesting started in the s. Although resulting in seral shrub communities generally favorable to white-tailed deer, it also reduced winter rangelands for decades [ 13 ]. Irrigation may have encouraged the extension of white-tailed deer rangelands into western Texas and other arid regions of the Southwest [ ].

Historically, white-tailed deer occurred in only the southern parts of a few Canadian provinces, but logging and forest fires, fire exclusion from prairies, and increased agriculture have contributed to extension of their range farther north into Canada [ , ].

Urban development habitat loss and its associated risks e. Key deer are also at risk from large-scale environmental changes such as those caused by hurricanes [ ]. Spread of nonnative invasive plants may be harmful, neutral, or beneficial to white-tailed deer. Taber and Murphy [ ] considered nonnative cheatgrass Bromus tectorum of "little benefit to deer". One source suggested that carrying capacity of rangelands for white-tailed deer may not be affected by nonnative invasive plants.

Along the Selway River in Idaho, where population densities ranged from 0. Other researchers show that white-tailed deer commonly consume nonnative invasive plants and may benefit from them [ , , , , , ]. For example, Canada thistle Cirsium arvense provided cover for Columbian white-tailed deer in Washington in summer, allowing them to use previously unused areas [ ]. Along the Selway River in Idaho, spotted knapweed was a major food item in white-tailed deer diets. White-tailed deer and mule deer ate spotted knapweed seed heads, particularly when snow was on the ground and seed heads were easily obtainable above the snow.

White-tailed deer also ate large amounts of spotted knapweed rosettes, particularly in spring after snowmelt [ ]. Roche and others [ ] suggested that diffuse knapweed C. Stromayer and others [ ] suggested that Chinese privet Ligustrum sinense be managed as an important winter forage for white-tailed deer in northwestern Georgia. Williams [ ] suggested that nonnative invasive shrubs may offer important cover for white-tailed deer in some areas of the eastern and midwestern United States.

White-tailed deer may contribute to the spread of nonnative invasive plants by ingesting, transporting, and disseminating viable seeds of species such as spotted knapweed, leafy spurge Euphorbia esula , purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria , and Morrow's honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii in their feces [ , , , , , , ].

In addition, preferential foraging on native herbs and creation of open patches by white-tailed deer may facilitate invasions [ , ]. The spread of some nonnative invasive plants such as cheatgrass, red brome B.

During the 21st century, it is predicted that average surface temperatures will increase 4. The effect of climate warming on white-tailed deer is unresolved and predictions are conflicting. A review stated that forest vegetation changes as a result of climate change are unlikely to have major effects on white-tailed deer populations because white-tailed deer are generalists and occupy all forest types. However, the review also noted that predicted changes in the distribution of some key midwinter cover and forage species could have adverse effects on white-tailed deer.

Eastern hemlock, for example, provides thermal and snow-interception cover and is predicted to be substantially reduced in most of the United States as a result of climate change [ 95 ].

In northern latitudes, more frequent fires and insect outbreaks predicted to occur with climate warming may shift forest age structure to younger age classes that would provide abundant forage for white-tailed deer [ 95 ]. Thompson and others [ ] predicted that the combination of temperature rise and greater than average fire occurrence may reduce boreal forest in northern and eastern Ontario, leading to increased white-tailed deer abundance [ ].

Computer simulations by Johnston and Schmitz [ ] indicated that altered thermal conditions in the continental United States alone were unlikely to affect white-tailed deer's distribution because their physiological tolerance to heat would allow them to survive.

Analyses of the effects of vegetation change indicated that the species should retain its distribution in most areas and may expand in some areas [ ].

In the southwestern United States, climate is predicted to become warmer and drier during the 21st century, which could negatively affect white-tailed deer distribution and abundance by reducing free water and converting some preferred woodlands to desert plant communities [ 95 , ].

In Florida, rising sea levels that may result from global warming would be detrimental to Key deer due to loss of already limited habitat [ ]. Climate warming may increase the prevalence of diseases and parasites that could negatively impact white-tailed deer populations. In eastern Canada, for example, blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis , the main vector of Lyme disease in North America, are predicted to spread through the region in 10 to 20 years, and white-tailed deer are an important overwinter host for blacklegged ticks [ 95 ].

Climate warming could also potentially result in increased reproduction and survival of biting midges Culicoides spp. Predicted increases in fire occurrence could have interacting effects with disease prevalence and climate warming see Fire effects on white-tailed deer diseases and parasites. In the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Minnesota, warm-wet scenarios of global climate change predicted that northern whitecedar, eastern white pine, northern red oak, and yellow birch populations would be reduced by predicted high white-tailed deer populations.

Establishment of 7 other tree species into the area is predicted to be reduced by the high white-tailed deer populations [ ]. White-tailed deer generally benefit from early-successional vegetation that establishes after logging and other disturbances [ 79 ]. Logging may benefit white-tailed deer because early-seral habitats often contain a greater variety, quantity, and quality of white-tailed deer forage than mature forests e.

A lack of food and cover immediately after clearcutting may be detrimental to white-tailed deer. In the long term, food may be scarce over a large area as the forest matures to midsuccession [ 56 , ].

The duration of logging benefits to white-tailed deer varies with forest type, soils, climate, and other factors. A study in the western redcedar-western hemlock zone of northern Idaho concluded that clearcuts produce maximal quantities of browse from about 15 years after logging [ ]. In ponderosa pine forest on the Kaibab National Forest in northern Arizona, herbage production peaked at 6 years after logging and then declined.

After 15 to 20 years, it was about the same as on uncut areas [ ]. In the eastern mixed forest region, DeGarmo and Gill cited in [ 20 ] reported that clearcuts supply abundant forage for up to 10 years.

Thereafter, browse plants grow out of reach and form dense thickets that white-tailed deer are reluctant to enter. DeGraaf and Yamasaki [ 87 ] recommended group-selection cutting or patch cutting approximately every 10 to 15 years to benefit white-tailed deer in the Northeast.

In southeastern loblolly pine-shortleaf pine-hardwood forests, herb production typically peaks 2 to 3 years after thinning and then declines. Browse production typically peaks in about 5 to 8 years [ ]. Use of prescribed fire, herbicides, soil scarification, planting of seeds and seedlings, and other site preparation may shorten or lengthen the time white-tailed deer use a logged site [ 95 ].

In addition, succession following clearcutting may be affected by heavy white-tailed deer browsing see White-tailed deer foraging effects. White-tailed deer use of logged areas is modified by opening size , logging slash , weather , particularly snow depth, and other factors. A review stated that managing for a mix of forest ages early-successional, midsuccessional, and mature is most likely to benefit white-tailed deer.

Early-successional forests provide food for white-tailed deer in the form of woody browse, forbs, and soft mast, while midsuccessional and mature forests provide less browse and forbs, but more hard mast [ 33 , 95 ] see Successional status. Size and shape of openings: The size and distribution of clearcuts in space and time are important to white-tailed deer, which is also likely true of burned sites see Size and shape of burned areas.

They also preferred clearcuts that were either scarified or scarified then burned under prescription compared with untreated clearcuts. The authors suggested that such treatments may have led to greater abundance of preferred herbaceous species and reduced logging slash , which benefited deer.

Clearcut blocks in clumped patterns appeared unfavorable [ ]. A review stated that several studies found that deer likely benefitted from the creation of small openings in dense ponderosa pine stands [ 64 ].

The authors recommended that the distance across clearcuts be no more than twice the distance a white-tailed deer generally moves from the forest edge, approximately to feet m [ ]. However, Cypher and Cypher [ 79 ] suggested that distribution of openings in a landscape is more important than the amount of area that is open. They recommended that openings occur in areas accessible to white-tailed deer i. Halls [ ] suggested that clearcuts in southeastern loblolly pine-shortleaf pine-hardwood forests be 20 to acres ha because smaller areas are likely to be overbrowsed and larger areas may reduce habitat diversity.

Depending upon its density, logging slash may be detrimental or beneficial to white-tailed deer. A review stated that abundant logging slash generally impedes white-tailed deer and mule deer movements and may act as a barrier to deer use of an area [ 53 ].

In quaking aspen stands on the Apache and Coconino National Forests, deer use was lower in thinned stands with abundant slash than unthinned stands despite greater density of perennial grasses, forbs, and quaking aspen sprouts in thinned stands.

Apparently, the amount of woody debris in thinned stands reduced use by deer [ ]. Conversely, some logging slash provides cover for white-tailed deer.

In a selectively cut ponderosa pine forest in Arizona, deer pellet groups were more numerous where slash was undisturbed after logging.

Slash abundance was 1. The author suggested that slash may have provided protective cover [ ]. In Arizona, Neff cited in [ 64 ] found that deer showed no preference for either the presence or absence of slash in small acres 0.

Slash burning often favors establishment of seral shrubs, many of which are preferred white-tailed deer browse species [ ]. For information about effects of postfire debris accumulations, see Physical barriers. Weather and use of clearcuts: Similar to their use of burned areas see Weather and use of burned areas , white-tailed deer may not use clearcuts because of deeper snow than in mature forests [ ].

For example, in white spruce forest near Hinton, Alberta, white-tailed deer and other ungulates used strip clearcuts almost exclusively in summer during a 5-year study but used the clearcuts "very little" in winter [ ]. Influences of livestock grazing on white-tailed deer can be detrimental, neutral, or beneficial [ 60 , , , ].

Grazing, as well as the physical presence of cattle Bos taurus , domestic sheep Ovis aries , domestic goats Capra hircus , and other livestock can reduce forage and also cause behavioral changes and altered activity budgets that make foraging less productive [ 60 , , , ]. On rotationally burned longleaf pine-bluestem Andropogon spp. Locations of white-tailed deer indicated an "immediate exodus" of white-tailed deer from areas after cattle were introduced.

White-tailed deer resumed use of the areas after cattle were removed [ 69 ]. A review stated that white-tailed deer are better adapted to browsing and select plants with higher nutritional quality than cattle, which have better ability to digest low-quality grasses, thus making forage competition minimal [ 60 ].

However, white-tailed deer and cattle diets overlap somewhat range: Overlap may increase as forage becomes less available, typically in winter and early spring [ 44 , 60 , ]. Domestic sheep and domestic goats compete more directly with white-tailed deer for forage than cattle because their diets overlap more [ 44 , ]. A review stated that competition between livestock and white-tailed deer is particularly severe in habitats that are overgrazed [ ].

Fawn survival may be lower in areas with livestock grazing due to removal of hiding cover and reduced forage [ ]. During a drought year on Texas rangelands, a November helicopter survey showed no fawns with any of 65 females sighted in a short-duration grazed area, whereas fawns were sighted at a ratio of 0. During 2 other years, when rainfall was greater, fawns were sighted at similar ratios in both areas.

The author speculated that coyote predation on fawns might have been higher in the short-duration grazed area during the drought year because the area had less hiding cover compared to the continuously grazed area Hyde cited in [ ].

During the drought year, female white-tailed deer harvested quarterly on the short-duration grazed and continuously grazed areas were similar in field-dressed weight, kidney fat index, and fawns in utero Kohl and others unpublished data cited in [ ]. High, continuous cattle, domestic sheep, and domestic goat grazing in acre 39 ha fenced pastures was associated with lower weights and reduced fat content in stocked female white-tailed deer, reduced recruitment, and decreased adult white-tailed deer survival.

The study sites were in a live oak-shinoak Quercus virginiana-Q. For more information, see these reviews: A review stated that water developments have likely benefitted white-tailed deer populations in the Southwest [ ].

Another review noted that while white-tailed deer commonly use water developments for livestock, there is no documentation that livestock watering facilities increased white-tailed deer populations or productivity in Oklahoma, Texas, or northern Mexico [ ]. For specific development and management ideas to consider, see the review by Olson [ ]. Large fires may be more likely to result in injury or death of deer than small fires because large fires remove more protective cover and temporarily reduce forage [ , ].

Gabrielson [ ] noted that at least 8 deer were killed by the "racing flames" during the "great fires" of September in Cowlitz and Clark counties, Washington, and eastern Clackamas and Multnomah counties, Oregon. Large, long-duration wildfires in pocosin in North Carolina resulted in high white-tailed deer mortality.

Many injuries became infected, resulting in high secondary mortality. A helicopter survey 6 days following containment of the fire found 1. Mortality estimates from ground and aerial surveys soon following a May 17,acre 7, ha wildfire in the same area ranged from 1. Both fires were rapidly moving headfires followed by severe ground fires in deep peat [ ] that burned slowly and for more than 3 weeks [ ]. White-tailed deer carcasses were typically found in smoldering hollows in peat. The authors stated that such high white-tailed deer mortality had not been reported in other southeastern habitats types and "most likely did not occur under natural fire regimes" Osborne and others cited in [ ].

In contrast, only 36 white-tailed deer were killed during a severe 45,acre 18, ha May wildfire in pocosin at the Holly Shelter Game Land, North Carolina. The fire burned almost all aboveground vegetation and burned as deep as 3 feet 1 m into the peat, killing roots of most plants in some areas.

Unlike the other 2 fires, this fire was not of long duration and was extinguished by heavy rains in a few days. Most white-tailed deer carcasses were found in an area where a headfire met a backfire set by suppression crews [ ]. Of these, 18 were found in an area where the animals had been driven by changing winds from the edge of the forest fire into burning peat marshes. Mobley and Balmer [ ] suggested that prescribed fires are generally not large enough, hot enough, or fast-spreading enough to trap and kill wildlife.

As of this writing , no published documents reported white-tailed deer deaths resulting from prescribed fires. Occasionally, injury suffered during a fire may result in high secondary mortality e. White-tailed deer carcasses were found in and near the burned areas for several months following the fires. Some of the deaths were apparently due to these injuries [ ]. Shantz [ ] and Gabrielson [ ] noted many instances where the feet of deer were burned, thus crippling the animals.

Vogl [ ] reported a case where a white-tailed deer buck's back was covered with large burns. However, the deer appeared healthy when it was harvested.

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