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Kashrut is the body of Jewish law dealing with what foods we can and cannot eat and how those foods must be prepared and eaten. It is the same root as the more commonly known word "kosher," which describes food that meets these standards. The word "kosher" can also be used, and often is used, to describe ritual objects that are made in accordance with Jewish law and are fit for ritual use.
Contrary to popular misconception, rabbis or other religious officials do not "bless" food to make it kosher. There are blessings that observant Jews recite over food before eating it, but these blessings have nothing to do with making the food kosher.
Food can be kosher without a rabbi or priest ever becoming involved with it: However, in our modern world of processed foods, it is difficult to know what ingredients are in your food and how they were processed, so it is helpful to have a rabbi examine the food and its processing and assure kosher consumers that the food is kosher.
This certification process is discussed below. Kosher dietary laws are observed all year round, not just during Pesach Passover.
There are additional dietary restrictions during Pesach, and many foods that are kosher for year-round use are not "kosher for Passover. Foods that are kosher for Passover, however, are always kosher for year-round use. There is no such thing as "kosher-style" food. Kosher is not a style of cooking. Chinese food can be kosher if it is prepared in accordance with Jewish law, and there are many fine kosher Chinese restaurants in Philadelphia and New York.
Traditional Ashkenazic Jewish foods like knishes , bagels , blintzes , and matzah ball soup can all be non-kosher if not prepared in accordance with Jewish law. When a restaurant calls itself "kosher-style," it usually means that the restaurant serves these traditional Jewish foods, and it almost invariably means that the food is not actually kosher. Food that is not kosher is commonly referred to as treif lit. Many modern Jews think that the laws of kashrut are simply primitive health regulations that have become obsolete with modern methods of food preparation.
There is no question that some of the dietary laws have some beneficial health effects. For example, the laws regarding kosher slaughter are so sanitary that kosher butchers and slaughterhouses have been exempted from many USDA regulations.
However, health is not the only reason for Jewish dietary laws. Many of the laws of kashrut have no known connection with health. To the best of our modern scientific knowledge, there is no reason why camel or rabbit meat both treif is any less healthy than cow or goat meat.
In addition, some of the health benefits to be derived from kashrut were not made obsolete by the refrigerator. For example, there is some evidence that eating meat and dairy together interferes with digestion, and no modern food preparation technique reproduces the health benefit of the kosher law of eating them separately.
In recent years, several secular sources that have seriously looked into this matter have acknowledged that health does not explain these prohibitions. Some have suggested that the prohibitions are instead derived from environmental considerations. For example, a camel which is not kosher is more useful as a beast of burden than as a source of food.
In the Middle Eastern climate, the pig consumes a quantity of food that is disproportional to its value as a food source. But again, these are not reasons that come from Jewish tradition. The short answer to why Jews observe these laws is: The Torah does not specify any reason for these laws, and for a Torah-observant, traditional Jew, there is no need for any other reason.
Some have suggested that the laws of kashrut fall into the category of "chukkim," laws for which there is no reason.
We show our obedience to G-d by following these laws even though we do not know the reason. Others, however, have tried to ascertain G-d's reason for imposing these laws. In his book "To Be a Jew" an excellent resource on traditional Judaism , Rabbi Hayim Halevy Donin suggests that the dietary laws are designed as a call to holiness.
The ability to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil, pure and defiled, the sacred and the profane, is very important in Judaism.
Imposing rules on what you can and cannot eat ingrains that kind of self control, requiring us to learn to control even our most basic, primal instincts.
Donin also points out that the laws of kashrut elevate the simple act of eating into a religious ritual. The Jewish dinner table is often compared to the Temple altar in rabbinic literature. A Jew who observes the laws of kashrut cannot eat a meal without being reminded of the fact that he is a Jew. People who do not keep kosher often tell me how difficult it is. Actually, keeping kosher is not particularly difficult in and of itself; what makes it difficult to keep kosher is the fact that the rest of the world does not do so.
As we shall see below, the basic underlying rules are fairly simple. If you buy your meat at a kosher butcher and buy only kosher certified products at the market, the only thing you need to think about is the separation of meat and dairy.
Keeping kosher only becomes difficult when you try to eat in a non-kosher restaurant, or at the home of a person who does not keep kosher. In those situations, your lack of knowledge about your host's ingredients and food preparation techniques make it very difficult to keep kosher.
Some commentators have pointed out, however, that this may well have been part of what G-d had in mind: Although the details of kashrut are extensive, the laws all derive from a few fairly simple, straightforward rules:.
Of the "beasts of the earth" which basically refers to land mammals with the exception of swarming rodents , you may eat any animal that has cloven hooves and chews its cud. Any land mammal that does not have both of these qualities is forbidden. The Torah specifies that the camel, the rock badger, the hare and the pig are not kosher because each lacks one of these two qualifications.
Cattle, sheep, goats, deer and bison are kosher. Of the things that are in the waters, you may eat anything that has fins and scales. Thus, shellfish such as lobsters, oysters, shrimp, clams and crabs are all forbidden.
Fish like tuna, carp, salmon and herring are all permitted. For birds, the criteria is less clear. The Torah provides a list of forbidden birds Lev. All of the birds on the list are birds of prey or scavengers, thus the rabbis inferred that this was the basis for the distinction. Other birds are permitted, such as chicken, geese, ducks and turkeys. However, some people avoid turkey, because it is was unknown at the time of the giving of the Torah, leaving room for doubt.
Of the "winged swarming things" winged insects , a few are specifically permitted Lev. There are communities that have a tradition about what species are permitted, and in those communities some insects are eaten. Rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and insects except as mentioned above are all forbidden.
Some authorities require a post-mortem examination of the lungs of cattle, to determine whether the lungs are free from adhesions. If the lungs are free from such adhesions, the animal is deemed "glatt" that is, "smooth". In certain circumstances, an animal can be kosher without being glatt; however, the stringency of keeping "glatt kosher" has become increasingly common in recent years, and you would be hard-pressed to find any kosher meat that is not labeled as "glatt kosher.
As mentioned above, any product derived from these forbidden animals, such as their milk, eggs, fat, or organs, also cannot be eaten. Rennet, an enzyme used to harden cheese, is often obtained from non-kosher animals, thus kosher hard cheese can be difficult to find.
The mammals and birds that may be eaten must be slaughtered in accordance with Jewish law. We may not eat animals that died of natural causes Deut. In addition, the animal must have no disease or flaws in the organs at the time of slaughter. These restrictions do not apply to fish; only to the flocks and herds Num. Ritual slaughter is known as shechitah, and the person who performs the slaughter is called a shochet, both from the Hebrew root Shin-Cheit-Teit.
The method of slaughter is a quick, deep stroke across the throat with a perfectly sharp blade with no nicks or unevenness. This method is painless, causes unconsciousness within two seconds, and is widely recognized as the most humane method of slaughter possible.
Another advantage of shechitah is that it ensures rapid, complete draining of the blood, which is also necessary to render the meat kosher. The shochet is not simply a butcher; he must be a pious man, well-trained in Jewish law, particularly as it relates to kashrut. In smaller, more remote communities, the rabbi and the shochet were often the same person. The Torah prohibits consumption of blood. This is the only dietary law that has a reason specified in Torah: This applies only to the blood of birds and mammals, not to fish blood.
Thus, it is necessary to remove all blood from the flesh of kosher animals. The first step in this process occurs at the time of slaughter. As discussed above, shechitah allows for rapid draining of most of the blood.
The remaining blood must be removed, either by broiling or soaking and salting. Liver may only be kashered by the broiling method, because it has so much blood in it and such complex blood vessels. This final process must be completed within 72 hours after slaughter, and before the meat is frozen or ground.
Most butchers and all frozen food vendors take care of the soaking and salting for you, but you should always check this when you are buying someplace you are unfamiliar with. An egg that contains a blood spot may not be eaten. This isn't very common, but I find them once in a while. It is a good idea to break an egg into a glass and check it before you put it into a heated pan, because if you put a blood-stained egg into a heated pan, the pan becomes non-kosher.
If your recipe calls for multiple eggs, break each one into the glass separately, so you don't waste all of the eggs if the last one is not kosher! The sciatic nerve and its adjoining blood vessels may not be eaten. The process of removing this nerve is time consuming and not cost-effective, so most American kosher slaughterers simply sell the hind quarters to non-kosher butchers.
A certain kind of fat, known as chelev, which surrounds the vital organs and the liver, may not be eaten. Kosher butchers remove this. Modern scientists have found biochemical differences between this type of fat and the permissible fat around the muscles and under the skin. All fruits and vegetables are kosher but see the note regarding Grape Products below.
However, bugs and worms that may be found in some fruits and vegetables are not kosher. Fruits and vegetables that are prone to this sort of thing should be inspected to ensure that they contain no bugs. Leafy vegetables like lettuce and herbs and flowery vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower are particularly prone to bugs and should be inspected carefully.
Strawberries and raspberries can also be problematic. The Star-K kosher certification organization has a very nice overview of the fruits and vegetables prone to this and the procedure for addressing it in each type. On three separate occasions, the Torah tells us not to "boil a kid in its mother's milk.
The Oral Torah explains that this passage prohibits eating meat and dairy together. The rabbis extended this prohibition to include not eating milk and poultry together. In addition, the Talmud prohibits cooking meat and fish together or serving them on the same plates, because it is considered to be unhealthy. It is, however, permissible to eat fish and dairy together, and it is quite common lox and cream cheese, for example.
It is also permissible to eat dairy and eggs together. This separation includes not only the foods themselves, but the utensils, pots and pans with which they are cooked, the plates and flatware from which they are eaten, the dishwashers or dishpans in which they are cleaned, the sponges with which they are cleaned and the towels with which they are dried. A kosher household will have at least two sets of pots, pans and dishes: See Utensils below for more details.
One must wait a significant amount of time between eating meat and dairy. Opinions differ, and vary from three to six hours after meat. This is because fatty residues and meat particles tend to cling to the mouth. From dairy to meat, however, one need only rinse one's mouth and eat a neutral solid like bread, unless the dairy product in question is also of a type that tends to stick in the mouth.
The Yiddish words fleishik meat , milchik dairy and pareve neutral are commonly used to describe food or utensils that fall into one of those categories. Note that even the smallest quantity of dairy or meat in something renders it entirely dairy or meat for purposes of kashrut.
For example, most margarines are dairy for kosher purposes, because they contain a small quantity of whey or other dairy products to give it a buttery taste. Animal fat is considered meat for purposes of kashrut.
You should read the ingredients very carefully, even if the product is kosher-certified. Utensils pots, pans, plates, flatware, etc. A utensil picks up the kosher "status" meat, dairy, pareve, or treif of the food that is cooked in it or eaten off of it, and transmits that status back to the next food that is cooked in it or eaten off of it. Thus, if you cook chicken soup in a saucepan, the pan becomes meat. If you thereafter use the same saucepan to heat up some warm milk, the fleishik status of the pan is transmitted to the milk, and the milchik status of the milk is transmitted to the pan, making both the pan and the milk a forbidden mixture.
Kosher status can be transmitted from the food to the utensil or from the utensil to the food only in the presence of heat, including hot spices or prolonged contact, thus if you are eating cold food in a non-kosher establishment, the condition of the plates is not an issue.
I knew an Orthodox rabbi who would eat ice cream at Friendly's, for example, because the ice cream was kosher and the utensils are irrelevant for such cold food. Likewise, you could use the same knife to slice cold cuts and cheese, as long as you clean it in between, but this is not really a recommended procedure, because it increases the likelihood of mistakes.
Stove tops and sinks routinely become non-kosher utensils, because they routinely come in contact with both meat and dairy in the presence of heat. It is necessary, therefore, to use dishpans when cleaning dishes don't soak them directly in the sink and to use separate spoon rests and trivets when putting things down on the stove top.
Dishwashers are a kashrut problem. If you are going to use a dishwasher for both meat and dairy in a kosher home, you either need to have separate dish racks or you need to run the dishwasher in between meat and dairy loads. You should use separate towels and pot holders for meat and dairy. Routine laundering kashers such items, so you can simply launder them between using them for meat and dairy.
Certain kinds of utensils can be "kashered" if you make a mistake and use it with both meat and dairy. Consult a rabbi for guidance if this situation occurs. The restrictions on grape products derive from the laws against using products of idolatry.
Wine was commonly used in the rituals of all ancient religions, and wine was routinely sanctified for pagan purposes while it was being processed. For this reason, use of wines and other grape products made by non-Jews was prohibited. Whole grapes are not a problem, nor are whole grapes in fruit cocktail. For the most part, this rule only affects wine and grape juice.
This becomes a concern with many fruit drinks or fruit-flavored drinks, which are often sweetened with grape juice. You may also notice that some baking powders are not kosher, because baking powder is sometimes made with cream of tartar, a by-product of wine making. All beer used to be kosher, but this is no longer the case because fruity beers made with grape products have become more common.
There are a few additional considerations that come up, that you may hear discussed in more sophisticated discussions of kashrut. The task of keeping kosher is greatly simplified by widespread kashrut certification. Products that have been certified as kosher are labeled with a mark called a hekhsher from the same Hebrew root as the word "kosher" that ordinarily identifies the rabbi or organization that certified the product.
The process of certification does not involve a rabbi "blessing" the food; rather, it involves examining the ingredients used to make the food, examining the process by which the food is prepared, and periodically inspecting the processing facilities to make sure that kosher standards are maintained. These symbols are widely-accepted hekhshers commonly found on products throughout the United States. These symbols are registered trademarks of kosher certification organizations, and cannot be placed on a food label without the organization's permission.
Click the symbols to visit the websites of these organizations. With a little practice, it is very easy to spot these hekhshers on food labels, usually near the product name, occasionally near the list of ingredients.
There are many other certifications available, of varying degrees of strictness. The most controversial certification is the K, a plain letter K found on products asserted to be kosher. A letter of the alphabet cannot be trademarked, so any manufacturer can put a K on a product, even without any supervision at all. For example, Jell-O brand gelatin puts a K on its product, even though every reliable Orthodox authority agrees that Jell-O is not kosher. On the other hand, some very reliable rabbis will certify products without having a trademark to offer, and their certifications will also have only a "K.
The certifying organization assures you that the product is kosher according to their standards, but standards vary. It is becoming increasingly common for kosher certifying organizations to indicate whether the product is fleishik meat , milchik dairy or pareve neutral. If the product is dairy, it will frequently have a D or the word Dairy next to the kashrut symbol.
If it is meat, the word Meat may appear near the symbol usually not an M, because that might be confused with "milchik". If it is pareve, the word Pareve or Parev may appear near the symbol Not a P! That means kosher for Passover! If they grow near oceans , the seeds can be transported by ocean currents over long distances, allowing the seeds to be dispersed as far as other continents.
Mangrove trees grow directly out of the water; when their seeds are ripe they fall from the tree and grow roots as soon as they touch any kind of soil. During low tide, they might fall in soil instead of water and start growing right where they fell. If the water level is high, however, they can be carried far away from where they fell. Mangrove trees often make little islands as dirt and other things collect in their roots, making little bodies of land.
A special review for oceanic waters hydrochory can be seen at oceanic dispersal. Animals can disperse plant seeds in several ways, all named zoochory. Seeds can be transported on the outside of vertebrate animals mostly mammals , a process known as epizoochory. Plant species transported externally by animals can have a variety of adaptations for dispersal, including adhesive mucus, and a variety of hooks, spines and barbs. This form of seed dispersal has been implicated in rapid plant migration and the spread of invasive species.
Seed dispersal via ingestion by vertebrate animals mostly birds and mammals , or endozoochory , is the dispersal mechanism for most tree species. Birds and mammals are the most important seed dispersers, but a wide variety of other animals, including turtles and fish, can transport viable seeds. The extinction of these large frugivores from poaching and habitat loss may have negative effects on the tree populations that depend on them for seed dispersal. Seed dispersal by ants myrmecochory is a dispersal mechanism of many shrubs of the southern hemisphere or understorey herbs of the northern hemisphere.
Ants carry such seeds into their colonies, feed the elaiosome to their larvae and discard the otherwise intact seed in an underground chamber. Seed predators, which include many rodents such as squirrels and some birds such as jays may also disperse seeds by hoarding the seeds in hidden caches. In addition, rodents may also disperse seeds via seed spitting due to the presence of secondary metabolites in ripe fruits.
For example, dung beetles are known to disperse seeds from clumps of feces in the process of collecting dung to feed their larvae. Other types of zoochory are chiropterochory by bats , malacochory by molluscs, mainly terrestrial snails , ornithochory by birds and saurochory by non-bird sauropsids. Zoochory can occur in more than one phase, for example through diploendozoochory , where a primary disperser an animal that ate a seed along with the seeds it is carrying is eaten by a predator that then carries the seed further before depositing it.
Dispersal by humans anthropochory used to be seen as a form of dispersal by animals. Recent research points out that human dispersers differ from animal dispersers by a much higher mobility based on the technical means of human transport. On the other hand, dispersal by humans also acts on smaller, regional scales and drives the dynamics of existing biological populations. Deliberate seed dispersal also occurs as seed bombing. This has risks as unsuitable provenance may introduce genetically unsuitable plants to new environments.
Seed dispersal has many consequences for the ecology and evolution of plants. Dispersal is necessary for species migrations, and in recent times dispersal ability is an important factor in whether or not a species transported to a new habitat by humans will become an invasive species. For example, myrmecochory increased the rate of diversification more than twofold in plant groups in which it has evolved because myrmecochorous lineages contain more than twice as many species as their non-myrmecochorous sister groups.
In addition, the speed and direction of wind are highly influential in the dispersal process and in turn the deposition patterns of floating seeds in the stagnant water bodies. The transportation of seeds is led by the wind direction.
This effects colonization situated on the banks of a river or to wetlands adjacent to streams relative to the distinct wind directions. The wind dispersal process can also effect connections between water bodies. Essentially, wind plays a larger role in the dispersal of waterborne seeds in a short period of time, days and seasons, but the ecological process allows the process to become balanced throughout a time period of several years.
The time period of which the dispersal occurs is essential when considering the consequences of wind on the ecological process. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biological dispersal Biantitropical distribution Diplochory Disturbance ecology Dormancy — "dispersal in time" Elaiosome Gene flow Habitat fragmentation Island hopping Landscape ecology Metapopulation Myrmecochory Oceanic dispersal Population ecology Seed dispersal syndrome.
It is then hidden in a heap of stones, with a large rock placed on top to keep the air out. Preparation of kiviak is not an easy task. One sealskin rooms about auks. Catching the birds is the most complicated part. The birds are packed into sealskin with beaks and feathers. The stuffing is to be wrapped into the skin until there is no more air left. It is sewn up, and placed under the heap of stones. The biggest one is put right atop in order to push the remaining air out of the skin.
Firstly the anaconda is not going to want to eat you, most likely. Humans are just a bit too big for them. There's not many cases of an anaconda. When done right, it's absolute heaven. I've had about a dozen lovers over 30 years and the one who really stands out is the one who was flipping amazing at. 'Raw panic. My windpipe was clamped shut. I thought my eyeballs would pop out ': Adventurer relives what it's really like to be 'eaten' by a giant.