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Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly. Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in Bell's previous application in which Bell described a cup of mercury, not water.
Bell had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles six km distant, along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. These experiments clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent. Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention. Later, Bell had the opportunity to demonstrate the invention personally to Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, as well as to Queen Victoria , who had requested a private audience at Osborne House , her Isle of Wight home.
She called the demonstration "most extraordinary". The enthusiasm surrounding Bell's public displays laid the groundwork for universal acceptance of the revolutionary device. The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone. In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call.
The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone. Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims. On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits. During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hopes of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.
Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
In , he characterized his status as: By , a new summer retreat was contemplated. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake, ordering additional vessels from the H. In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.
Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax. Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells. Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.
Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype.
They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media. Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories.
At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.
Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light. On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.
Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector in The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U. According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin's bullet partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static. Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.
Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires. Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.
Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.
During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.
Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil. Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U.
Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.
Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.
Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.
Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W. The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.
One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.
Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.
McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.
The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.
These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.
Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.
The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.
In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s. In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine. He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The bel B and the smaller decibel dB are units of measurement of power level invented by Bell Labs and named after him.
The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf. The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time.
The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.
Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL. Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.
It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy. Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments. To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".
Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. University of Edinburgh University College London. Hubbard father-in-law David C. Bell uncle Gilbert H. Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Invention of the telephone. Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy. Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".
When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.
Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".
Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work. The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.
There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.
It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on 1 June Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs. Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.
It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand. Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first.
Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement. When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies. Views of an Expert.
Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others. Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone". Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him. His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils. Retrieved May 10, Retrieved September 27, History of the County of Brant: Retrieved May 4, Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude.
Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
Archived October 24, , at the Wayback Machine. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes". Retrieved February 24, The Spirit of Invention. Sounds Out of Silence: A life of Alexander Graham Bell. Chasing Alexander Bell's Secret. Dictionary of Canadian Biography.
XV — online ed. University of Toronto Press. Inventor of the Telephone. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck.
Retrieved September 19, Damned For Their Difference: The Handbook of Social Justice in Education. Images of Alexander Graham Bell reprint ed. Retrieved October 14, A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell. Retrieved on September 20, Thomas Edison's overlooked business story".
Archived from the original on December 23, The Telephone Patent Conspiracy of Retrieved March 28, Retrieved July 28, Wilbur "confesses " ". Archived from the original on March 11, Never the Twain Shall Meet: Bell, Gallaudet, and the Communications Debate. Scientists who Made History. Deadlines for applications are 30 September and 31 March.
Universal Credit is a new benefit Whilst this is indeed a worry for many, help is available in Kinross. The service is available by appointment only. To make an appointment please call or email Andrew. See poster for details. Once a month on a Tuesday evening, 6. Once a month on a Friday morning Once a month on a Saturday morning Book group for children: For children age years.
On the first Friday of the month. Spaces are limited so please contact the libriary for more details. Please contact the Library for the other book group dates. Trauma Counselling Line Scotland A free and confidential service for people who have experienced abuse in childhood. See leaflet for phone number and details. PKAVS has launched a new telephone service for carers of people aged 65 or over. Please see the poster for details. Carers of people aged 65 or over are welcome to call to hear a friendly voice and receive emotional support.
Any carers who are registered with our service will be able to book in for a social therapy. Police Report - End October. Are you an adult with a disability? Would you like there to be more for you to do in Kinross? Come along on Thursdays, 1pm - 3pm. Looking for great value, ethical savings and loans?
See poster for details and prices Knitting and Crochet Clubs - Saturday afternoons 2pm - 4pm. See poster for details and prices. Orwell, Portmoak and Glenfarg District Girl Guiding Due to an increase in guide numbers and the new exciting programme recently rolled out, we are looking for an enthusiastic volunteer to open a unit in Portmoak and a unit helper for our Milnathort unit. There will be full support from our great team.
If interested, please give Alison a buzz on S.
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