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The extension of civil marriage , union , and domestic partnership rights to same-sex couples in various jurisdictions can raise legal issues upon dissolution of these unions that are not experienced by opposite-sex couples, especially if law of their residence or nationality does not have same-sex marriage or partnerships.

In jurisdictions where same-sex unions are not possible, also divorce or annulment is often not possible, while general conflict of law rules sometimes exclude divorce in the jurisdiction where the marriage was celebrated. In some jurisdictions divorce is possible, even if marriage is not possible. They are listed below:. The federal government's denial of recognition to same-sex marriages before the United States v. Windsor case meant that assets transferred in a divorce settlement were treated as gifts.

Hodges case, couples in same-sex marriages with some exceptions could generally obtain a divorce only in jurisdictions that recognized same-sex marriages. Same-sex couples attempting to divorce in Texas while it did not recognize the validity of same-sex marriages met with different results. Two cases went before the Texas Supreme Court; [5] the Court declined to hear one [6] and said it had no jurisdiction to decide the other.

A Florida couple who had legally married in Massachusetts, Keiba Lynn Shaw and Mariama Changamire Shaw, challenged Florida's ban on same-sex marriages in order to divorce. When Delaware and Minnesota legalized same-sex marriage in May , they gave their respective state courts the authority to conduct divorce proceedings in cases where a same-sex couple married in the state but neither party currently resided in a state that recognized their marriage.

As of , the same-sex partnership divorce rate was significantly lower than that of heterosexual couples in Denmark. The vast majority of gay marriages in Denmark are male-male. Fourteen 14 percent of these end in divorce, compared to 23 percent of female marriages. The higher rate for lesbians almost double , is consistent with data showing that women initiate most of the heterosexual divorces in Denmark.

In the Netherlands , slightly more marriages between women are recorded than between men: The lesbian divorce rate is much higher than the divorce rate between men: A study tracking married couples over a 10 year span found lesbian marriages were most likely to end in divorce.

The divorce rate of same-sex couples within 29 months of the introduction of legally binding civil partnerships was slightly less than one percent in the United Kingdom. As of , lesbian couples were twice as likely to initiate actions to end legally recognized partnerships as compared to gay men.

According to Office for National Statistics , divorce rate of heterosexual couple is at its lowest since in England and Wales. The divorce rate for same-sex couples increased in and , [23] [24] which the Office for National Statistics explained as a likely result of the fact that same-sex marriages have only been legal since Massachusetts, the first U.

More accurate statistics will be available as time passes. Some studies have shown that lesbian committed relationships do not last longer than gay male committed relationships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the play, see Gay Divorce. Israel Mexico 5 Netherlands: Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country.

Law portal LGBT portal. Court of first instance of Aruba. Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 15 May Lawyer in two same-sex divorce cases awaits Texas Supreme Court decision on petitions for review". Retrieved 19 January Supreme Court of Texas Blog.

Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 12 May Office of the Revisor of Statutes. Retrieved 26 December Despite stereotypes of gay relationships as short-lived, gay unions highlight the keys to success".

Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 27 September Lee; Herman, Jody L. Retrieved 15 December A Proposal for Child Custody Mediation". Goldhaber, Oren April Herman, Greg Spring American Journal of Family Law. Same-sex Couples and Minimum Contacts". Boston University Law Review.

McCarthy, Ellen 9 April When Same-Sex partners Want to Split". Smith, Tovia 20 July Retrieved 22 April Retrieved from " https: CS1 Dutch-language sources nl Use dmy dates from June Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 27 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Marriages from the Netherlands only [1].

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He commissions books for Primary teachers and students on the David Fulton list including the bestselling Jumpstart series and the Fulton 5—11 textbooks series, and commissions research-level, professional books and textbooks in the areas of educational psychology, learning and instruction, and the interface between neuroscience, psychology, and learning. Recent publishing collaborations include the bestselling Visible Learning series of books, Introduction to Neuroeducational Research, Jumpstart Grammar, and Descriptosaurus.

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With an emphasis on handbooks, textbooks, practitioner references, and edited collections, Nicole develops leading-edge academic and professional resources for readers at the college level and beyond.

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He has started, and continues to handle, over twenty important monograph series, some of which cover all of Asia for example, Media, Culture and Social Change in Asia , Religion in Contemporary Asia , and the Law in Asia series , and others which focus on particular parts of Asia for example, Studies on the Chinese Economy and the Malaysian Studies series. Peter has over thirty years' experience commissioning academic books.

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Working out of the UK but with a global portfolio of authors and projects, he commissions books at all levels, including textbooks, handbooks, and research monographs. Lara publishes books across all areas of audio from the most technical to the most creative, including but not limited to: Focal Press welcomes new book proposals from seasoned professionals as well as next generation talent. We are also delighted to support publishing programs with key partnerships such as Audio Engineering Society and Sound on Sound Magazine.

We also host a cutting edge community exchange on our blog Audio Unplugged. Registered in England and Wales. Kristina Abbotts , Senior Editor Email: Genevieve Aoki , Editor, Music Email: Heidi Bishop , Senior Editor Email: Gerhard Boomgaarden , Senior Publisher Email: Ellen Boyne , Editor U.

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Andy Humphries , Publisher Email: Andrew Humphrys , Senior Editor Email: Helena Hurd , Editor Development Studies. Claire Jarvis , Editor Email: Amy Jones , Editor Email: Neil Jordan , Editor, Sociology Email: John Kimmel , Executive Editor Email: Alison Kirk , Senior Editor Email: Sheni Kruger , Editor, Filmmaking Email: Rob Langham , Senior Publisher Email: Faye Leerink , Editor Email: Guy Loft , Senior Editor Email: Juliet Love , Publisher Email: Heidi Lowther , Editor Email: Christopher Matthews , Editor Email: Eve Mayer , Editor Email: Alexandra McGregor , Editor Email: The divorce rate of same-sex couples within 29 months of the introduction of legally binding civil partnerships was slightly less than one percent in the United Kingdom.

As of , lesbian couples were twice as likely to initiate actions to end legally recognized partnerships as compared to gay men. According to Office for National Statistics , divorce rate of heterosexual couple is at its lowest since in England and Wales. The divorce rate for same-sex couples increased in and , [23] [24] which the Office for National Statistics explained as a likely result of the fact that same-sex marriages have only been legal since Massachusetts, the first U.

More accurate statistics will be available as time passes. Some studies have shown that lesbian committed relationships do not last longer than gay male committed relationships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the play, see Gay Divorce. Israel Mexico 5 Netherlands: Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country.

Law portal LGBT portal. Court of first instance of Aruba. Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 15 May Lawyer in two same-sex divorce cases awaits Texas Supreme Court decision on petitions for review".

Retrieved 19 January Supreme Court of Texas Blog. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 11 May Minors refers to under 18s; the text of the article can be subject to interpretation. Article prohibits the "soliciting of a minor under the age of fifteen, or a person pretending to be such minor, for sexual purposes through the use of a computer system".

Male homosexual acts were illegal until , when the ancient sodomy laws were dropped from the Criminal Code of that year. This continued to be the case under the Napoleonic Code of The age of consent was set at 11 in and at 13 in In , the age of consent for homosexual acts was set at 21, while for heterosexual acts it was still The latter was increased to 15 in In , the age for homosexual acts was lowered to In , it was lowered to 15, in line with that for heterosexual acts.

The age of consent in Germany is 14 , as long as a person over the age of 21 does not exploit a to year-old person's lack of capacity for sexual self-determination, in which case a conviction of an individual over the age of 21 requires a complaint from the younger individual; being over 21 and engaging in sexual relations with a minor of that age does not constitute an offense by itself.

Otherwise the age of consent is 16, although provisions protecting minors against abuse apply until the age of 18 under Section 1: This is specified by Sections Sexual abuse of children and Sexual abuse of youths of the Penal Code, which read:.

The current rules for age of consent in Germany were set following a post-reunification penal law reform in The ages of 14 and 16 had been relevant since the Criminal Code for the German Empire came into force in In West Germany the latter rule was kept, with minor changes in Unblemishedness was no longer required, and the court could refrain from punishment if the offender was under 21 years of age.

The German Democratic Republic , by contrast, created a new socialist criminal code in Female homosexuality was not prosecuted. In West Germany, male homosexuality was legalized in The age of consent was set to 21 years and reduced to 18 years in Only only men of 18 or older could be offenders and courts could refrain from punishment if the offender was not yet In East Germany, the criminal code was supplemented in by a provision that allowed the waiving of prosecution if no harm had been done to socialist society by the unlawful act.

In the GDR supreme court ruled homosexuality was a variant of sexual behaviour just as heterosexuality. West German law makers also saw the need for gender- and sexual-orientation-neutrality, and for rebalancing sexual self-determination with the protection of minors. In general, the need for a complaint from the former West German law was kept, but in the case of special public interest, the offence was made prosecutable ex officio, as had been the case in East German law.

The age of consent in Greece is The general provision for age of consent in Greece is 15 as specified by Article , as well as Articles , B of the Greek Penal Code. In , along with the legalization of same-sex civil unions , Article which provided a further prohibition of seducing a male under 17 if the actor is a male adult was repealed , therefore equalising age of consent for homosexual acts.

There are also several other prohibitions regarding positions of authority and acts of lewdness, as specified by Articles and Furthermore, there is a close-in-age exemption of 3 years age difference for indecent acts between persons younger than The age of consent in Hungary is A close-in-age exemption allows sexual acts from age 12 if the older party is under The new criminal code in force since 1 July reads: Until homosexual acts were illegal.

After decriminalisation the age of consent for homosexual acts was 20 and remained so until From then until the age of consent for such acts was 18, as specified by Section In the Hungarian Constitutional Court repealed Section and the age of consent for homosexual acts was lowered to 14 in line with heterosexual acts.

The age of consent in Iceland is 15 , as specified by Section of the Icelandic Penal Code, which reads: The age of consent was raised from 14 to 15 in The age of consent in Ireland is 17 , [44] in relation to vaginal, oral, or anal sex, and vaginal or anal penetration. In the case of offenses with children aged 15 and 16, the relevant statute, Sexual act with child under 17 years of age , provides that "8 Where, in proceedings for an offence under this section against a child who at the time of the alleged commission of the offence had attained the age of 15 years but was under the age of 17 years, it shall be a defence that the child consented to the sexual act of which the offence consisted where the defendant— a is younger or less than 2 years older than the child, b was not, at the time of the alleged commission of the offence, a person in authority in respect of the child, and c was not, at the time of the alleged commission of the offence, in a relationship with the child that was intimidatory or exploitative of the child.

Anal sex was illegal under the Offences against the Person Act , while the Criminal Law Amendment Act criminalised "Defilement of girl between thirteen and sixteen years of age", with more severe penalties for "Defilement of girl under thirteen years of age".

The Carrigan Report into child sex abuse and underage prostitution recommended raising the age of consent to 18 years. The Criminal Law Sexual Offences Act decriminalised male homosexual acts and created offences of " Buggery of persons under 17 years of age" and " Gross indecency with males under 17 years of age". It advised that close-in-age cases should remain criminalised, but with more lenient guidelines for sentencing.

It also recommended wider publicity of the age limits. The age of consent in Italy is 14 years, with a close-in-age exception that allows those aged 13 to engage in sexual activity with partners who are under the age of 18, provided that the age gap between them is less than 3 years. The age of consent rises to 16 if one of the participants has some kind of influence on the other e. Not knowing that the victim is underage is not a legal defense, except when it was unavoidable ignorance.

If the minor involved is under the age of 11, the crime can be punished even without a complaint and the punishment is aggravated. It is also illegal to perform sexual acts in the presence of a minor aged less than 14 with the intent of allowing the minor to witness the acts, even if they do not take an active part. See also more related articles from Interpol. The age of consent in Kazakhstan is 16 , according to article of the Crime Criminal Code.

Sexual Intercourse and Other Actions of a Sexual Character with a Person Under Sixteen Years of Age Sexual intercourse, sodomy, or lesbianism or other acts of sexual nature, with a person who did not reach sixteen years of age , the guilty party being aware of that fact, shall be punished by restriction of freedom for a period up to three years, or by detention under arrest for a period up to six months, or deprivation of freedom for a period up to five years.

The age of consent in Kosovo is Article of the Penal Penalty Code states that "Term 'Consent' means the voluntary agreement of a person who has reached the age of sixteen years to engage in the sexual act in question", and Article states that, 1.

Whoever subjects another person to a sexual act without such person's consent shall be punished by imprisonment of two 2 to ten 10 years". Sections and provide harsher penalties for rape and forcible sexual assault of juveniles. Until , male homosexual acts were illegal under Section This provision was repealed by the Latvian Parliament in and the age of consent for male homosexual acts was set at In , the Latvian Parliament adopted a new Criminal Code that contained a complex system of sexual offences: In , the law was amended to clarify the situation and confirm that the age of consent was 16 for all acts only a person aged 18 or older can be punished for having sex with a 14—15 year old.

The age of consent in Liechtenstein is Sexual activity with 14—15 year olds is generally legal, but it can still be punished if sexual access to these children has been obtained by exploiting their lack of sexual self-determination. The age of consent 14 was not set directly in this article of the Lithuanian criminal code, though. It has been established by the Lithuanian case law. This meant that both heterosexual and homosexual acts were allowed once a child had reached the age of 14 [ citation needed ].

There was and remains an exception to this rule: Until , male homosexual acts were prohibited under the Lithuanian Criminal Code, Article , which was repealed in that year.

The new law set an age of consent of 17 for male oral and anal intercourse, 16 for other male homosexual acts, and 14 for lesbian and heterosexual acts. In , the law was amended to equalise the age of consent at 14 for all sexual acts; the age of consent was raised to 16 in , regardless of gender and sexual orientation. The age of consent in Luxembourg is 16 , as specified by the Luxembourgish Penal Code, Article , which reads: The penalty will be imprisonment of five to ten years if the child was less than eleven years old.

Article 1 of the Criminal Code of Macedonia prohibits sexual conduct with a "child" and a "child" is defined by Article 71 as a person under However, Article prohibits an adult living in an extra-marital community with a Juvenile under The age of consent in Malta is Art of Chapter 9 of the Laws of Malta Presumption of violence in cases of carnal knowledge and indecent assault states:.

The punishment is imprisonment from three to nine years, with or without solitary confinement, as described in Art. The punishment can be increased in certain cases described in Art. A number of aggravating circumstances exist to this blanket provision including: Abuse of parental authority or tutorship, where the victim is under the age of 12 and if the offence is committed by means of threats or deceit. There is no definition of how old the offender must be: Even another minor can be guilty of this crime, [73] although there is no evidence that any such case has ever been prosecuted.

The interpretation of the law is situational and at the discretion of the prosecution and the courts, based on relevant factors that may be taken into account to decide whether the minor was actually "defiled". For example, in two brothers, aged 19 and 20, were found not guilty of defiling a girl, then aged 16 until the age of consent was Their sexual encounters were consensual, and it was clear that the girl had had several previous sexual adventures with several youths.

He had set up a situation in which the boy came to his apartment; as a result of both childish curiosity and what the court deemed to be the guile of the adult man, the boy remained in the apartment even while man first showered and then committed the lewd acts. In the wording of the law there is no discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. However, discrimination can result from selective enforcement with regard to individual cases. Marriage is allowed as early as the age of 16, which until May theoretically would have allowed a case to arise in which a spouse press charges under this article.

In practice, this problem has never arisen. The concept of age-banding employed in for example Canada is not present in the Maltese legal system and sexual activity between one partner who is 15 years old and another who is 16 years old can constitute defilement of minors, depending on the circumstances, with no exception being allowed purely on the basis of the proximity of their ages.

The primary objective of the Act is to transpose the Council of Europe Convention on prevention and combating of violence against women and domestic violence, and it also includes amendments that lowered the age of consent to The age of consent in Moldova is 16 , per Article " Sexual intercourse with a person under 16 ", and Article " Perverted Actions ".

Articles and provide harsher penalties for Rape and Violent Sexual Actions including physical or mental coercion against juveniles. The age of consent in Monaco is The age of consent in Montenegro is 14 , as set out in Article of the Criminal Code. Article makes it illegal for a teacher, instructor, guardian, adoptive parent, stepfather, stepmother or other person with a similar position to abuse one's position or authority in order to perform sexual intercourse or an equal act with a minor under 18 entrusted for teaching, education, custody and care.

Article 2 makes it illegal for a person to "provide for performing debauchery, an act equal to it or some other sexual act to a minor". Article prohibits "Extramarital community with a minor" Article reads: The age of consent in the Netherlands is 16 , as specified by the Dutch Criminal Code at Article , [85] and Article [86] which read:.

Close-in-age exceptions for consensual acts between adolescents close in age, within "social-ethical norms" are at the discretion of the prosecution. In the s, the Netherlands gained international attention due to its policies regarding the age of consent.

Between and [88] the Netherlands operated what was in effect an age of consent of 12, subject to qualifications. The relevant law, passed in November, , permitted sexual intercourse for young people between 12 and 16 in most circumstances, but allowed a challenge by parents or by the Child Protection Agency if there was evidence of exploitation. The Netherlands has gained an international reputation of being extremely liberal on sexual issues, with some of this due to exaggerated reports in foreign media and claims by foreign politicians, rather than based on reality.

For instance, during the s, some conservative campaigners in the US claimed that children were sold into sexual slavery at "auctions" held in Amsterdam , but did not produce any evidence to support their claims. Prior to , sodomy was illegal, the age of consent only applied to females and sexual contact with a female between the ages of 13 and 16 was a misdemeanor. As of , the age of consent is set at 16 for both males and females, sexual contact with any child under 16 regardless of gender is a felony and the ban on sodomy is lifted, thereby legalizing homosexual sex.

Even though one may be found guilty of violating the age of consent code, if those involved are "about equal as regards age and development", the court can exercise its own discretion to suspend passing a sentence.

Sexual relations between two women was never explicitly criminalized, but have been prosecuted under the general indecency law of the Civil Penal Code of The ban on sex between men, which also outlawed cohabitation [93] as well as sex with animals, was repealed in [94] [95] bestiality having been recriminalized in [96].

According to the Svalbard Treaty, Norwegian law is applied as the minimum standard. The same punishment shall be imposed on anyone, who records pornographic material with the participation of such a person.

Poland never imposed laws against homosexuality. However, in homosexuality was criminalised by the laws of occupying countries see Partitions of Poland. In the first Polish Criminal Code after regaining independence was introduced, making the age of consent of 15 for all sexual acts, regardless of sexual orientation. Since September , the age of consent laws of Portugal states 14 , regardless of sexual behaviour, gender or sexual orientation, as a result of the constitutional court of Portugal ruling on constitutional protection that explicitly includes " sexual orientation ", formally into the Constitution of Portugal back in Since September , the age of consent was formally equalised as part of the Penal Code of September Although the age of consent is stipulated at 14 in Portugal, the legality of sexual acts with a minor between 14 and 16 is open to legal interpretation since the law states that it is illegal to perform a sexual act with an adolescent between 14 and 16 years old "by taking advantage of their inexperience".

Homosexual acts were legalised for the first time in Portugal in , with an equal age of consent at that time - although homosexuality was again re-criminalised in They were decriminalised a second time in and an age of consent was set at 16, in line with heterosexual activities.

In , a new Penal Code was introduced with "different circumstances" for different sexual behaviours. Since September , the age of consent, regardless of sexual behaviour, gender or sexual orientation, is 14 [ citation needed ]. The new Romanian Criminal Code, [] which came into force on 1 February , sets a general age of consent of However, sexual acts that do not include penetration may be performed from age There is also a close-in-age exemption: The law sets several other restrictions in regard to children under In addition, it is illegal for an adult to engage in acts of sexual penetration with an adolescent under 18, if the adult abuses the authority or influence they have over the minor in order to gain the sexual access.

The relevant articles of the Criminal Code are Art. All these laws are gender neutral and apply regardless of the sexual orientation of those involved.

For a very long time, the age of consent in Romania was The Penal Code of , which followed shortly after the union of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia , and was in force between and , set an age of consent of Under this code, Article read: With regard to rape article the victim being under 14 constituted an aggravating factor. Nevertheless, the age of consent of 14 was maintained.

Article of the code read: The late s and the early 21st century saw major modifications to the criminal code, in an effort to modify what was seen as outdated provisions, especially as Romania prepared to enter the EU.

As such, homosexuality was decriminalized, the text of several criminal offences was modified by making it gender-neutral, the age of consent was lifted to 15 applicable to both girls and boys , punishments for several sexual crimes were increased, and the stipulation that a rapist could avoid punishment after rape if he married his victim was abolished. Changes were made through Law no.

Nevertheless, the rapid adoption of numerous laws led to poorly drafted and contradictory texts, which have caused difficulty among the jurisprudence and doctrine, and several cases ended to the High Court of Cassation and Justice in order to clarify the interpretation of the law.

The age of consent in Russia is The age of consent changed several times in Russian history: Law of early tightened the consent laws in Articles and considerably.

However, only a person over 18 can be charged. Charges are relatively low up to 4 years of prison - regardless of gender - and "obscene actions" have even less charges. If the victim is not understanding the nature and consequences of the act due to their age being under 12 or mental abilities , it will be considered rape and charged much more severely up to 15 years of prison, or up to 20 if the victim is under Sexual intercourse committed by a person who has reached the age of eighteen years with a person who has not reached the age of sixteen years - shall be punishable by obligatory labour for a term of up to hours, or by restriction of liberty for a term of up to four years, or by compulsory labour for a term of up to four years with or without deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or to be engaged in a certain activity for a period of up to three years, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to four years with or without deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or to be engaged in a certain activity for a period of up to ten years.

Pederasty or lesbianism in respect of a person who has not reached sixteen years of age effected by a person who has reached eighteen years of age - shall be punishable by compulsory labour for a term of up to five years with or without deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or to be engaged in a certain activity for a period of up to three years, or by deprivation of liberty for a term of up to six years with or without deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or to be engaged in a certain activity for a period of up to ten years.

Description The course is designed to give the student an in-depth understanding of the soil as a three-phase system (solid, liquid, gas). A basic knowledge of soil science and physics as a discipline is assumed. Editorial contacts and customer service contact information from Routledge and the Taylor & Francis Group. Ask any type of information or contact by make an enquiry form for Kokilaben Hospital.