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From the Albany Gazette, October 13, From the Virginia Patriot: Grave Doubts as to the Spaulding Theory of its Authorship. Strang, the Ruler of Beaver Island. March 9th paper Notes: Canton, Ohio, Wednesday, October 6, In the year '34 I was one of a self-appointed committee that met in the home of Mr.
Hurlburt had been in New York and Massachusetts looking up testimony; we had the manuscript of the Rev. Solomon Spaulding before us, that we compared with the Mormon Bible, and we had no doubt that from Spaulding's writings the Rev.
Sidney Rigdon got up the Mormon Bible. I am convinced of it now. Here are some of the reasons: The "Manuscript Found," written by the Rev. Solomon Spaulding in Conneaut, Ashtabula county, O.
Now what is this testimony? John Spaulding , a brother of Solomon, of Conneaut, says: It was a historical romance, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are the descendants of the Jews, or the Lost tribes. Martha Spaulding , wife of John Spaulding, says: The oversight is in itself a trifle, but its occurrence in both the Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon is an unanswerable proof of identity.
Miller in says: While there I boarded in the family of said Spaulding several months. I was soon introduced to the manuscript of Spaulding and perused it as often as I had leisure. He had written two or three books or pamphlets on different subjects, but that which more particularly drew my attention was one which he called the "Manuscript Found.
Ward [sic - Howard? Some eight or ten other persons of irreproachable character testify as to the identity of the "Manuscript Found," as they had read it and heard it read, with the Mormon Bible. And their testimony has never been impeached or denied I have believed since the spring of that Rigdon got up the Mormon Bible out of the "Manuscript Found," and there are many persons who have testified to Rigdon's connection with the manuscript. They have testified to the intimate acquaintance of Rigdon with Lambdin of Pittsburg, the partner of Patterson, printer, with whom Spaulding left his manuscript.
It is a romance of the Bible. Sevine [sic - Irvine? Bonsall of Rochester, Pa. Winter, says he "repeatedly heard Dr. Amos Dunlap of Warren, O. He married my aunt. During my visit he went into his bedroom and came out with a certain manuscript, seated himself by the fire, and commenced reading it.
His wife came into the room and exclaimed 'What! I mean to burn that paper. This will be a great thing someday. Rudolph , father of Mrs. Garfield, knew Sidney Rigdon very well, and says: Adamson Bentley , a very intimate friend of Rigdon, their wives were sisters, writing to the Rev.
Scott, another friend of Rigdon of many years, says that "Rigdon told me there was a book coming out, the manuscript of which had been found engraved on gold plates, as much as two years before the Mormon book made its appearance. Alexander Campbell , one of the strong and learned men of his time, known all over the land, confirms the truth of the conversation between "Father Bentley," as he was well known on the "Western Reserve," and Sidney Rigdon.
These witnesses prove that Rigdon had the "Manuscript Found" of Solomon Spaulding, without any doubt. Now as to Rigdon's acquaintance with Joe Smith, "the Prophet. Horace Eaton of Palmyra, N. Y, in a sketch on the " Origin of Mormonism ," says: The conference of the two is most private. This person, whose coming immediately preceded a new departure in the faith, was Sidney Rigdon, of Mentor, O. Eaton is confirmed in her statement by P. Rigdon was the first Mormon preacher in Palmyra.
Joseph Smith of Lamoni, Ia. This is not a copy of the "Manuscript Found" of Solomon Spaulding. Joseph Smith, of Lamoni, assumes too much when he says: At the meeting at Mr. Corning's in Mentor, in , I have no doubt we had this very identical "manuscript" now published among the papers submitted by Dr. We also had a copy of the "Manuscript Found," that was compared with the Mormon Bible and satisfied the committee that it was the basis of the Mormon Bible. I have said and believed since that I had seen and examined the original "Manuscript Found" of Solomon Spaulding, out of which Sidney Rigdon got up the Mormon Bible.
I believe, as Dr. Three years ago I wrote to Hurlburt and asked him about the "Manuscript Found. He is now dead. He was once a Mormon. For some reason in he had some difficulty with "the Saints" in Kirtland. The last known of the "Manuscript Found" it was in Hurlburt's hands.
It was not given to Mr. Howe of Painesville, O. Now there is no doubt that the Rev. Solomon Spaulding wrote the "Manuscript Found": That Sidney Rigdon had the original manuscript in his possession, read it first as a curiosity, and then used it to get up the Book of Mormon, a sham, a fraud, and a deception, and that he was the first to preach the delusion, are facts. This fact should not be lost sight of -- that Solomon Spaulding wrote two or more pamphlets on different subjects.
The The writer of the above, Mr. Briggs, is a leading and influential citizen of Brooklyn, N. For a number of years he was in the internal revenue service, having been appointed by President Lincoln.
Previous to that time he lived in Cleveland, O. He is a man of standing, veracity, and intelligence, and is now about seventy or seventy-five years of age. This letter by James A. It was reprinted in the Chicago Daily Tribune on Oct.
See comments appended to the Tribune reprint for details. The streets are deserted and the somber looking temple on Zion Hill is without an occupant. The last night's discourse was delivered by Apostle J. Lake, from the words: So much has been said and so little is really known of the belief of the Reorganized Church of the Latter Day Saints, that the following epitome of its faith and doctrine will be of interest. James on Beaver Island.
Neal's Tract 1 for this text. Neal's Tract 2 for this text. Division in the Mormon Church. Zanesville, Ohio, February 7, After sojourning a short time in the latter place they started South, traveling through New Jersey, Virginia, and thence through Eastern Ohio to Zanesville.
Very few persons are now living that can call to mind anything definite in regard to these deluded people. The following sketch is from the Zanesville Express, dated November 5, We understand they were lately seen near St. Their appearance and manner are represented as odious and disgusting. Their object, they say, is the good of mankind, which they endeavor to attain by the most repelling examples. Their Prophet announces that he has the power of casting out devils, and that he intends shortly to commence business.
It is painful to observe, that in this enlightened age, such imposture or delusion should be countenanced in society; that fanaticism should still find followers, and enthusiasm so preposterous gain if this singular pilgrim has really advocates among us. But the power he professes, we think he would have found sufficient employment at home. A correspondent informs us that five wagons, loaded with the household goods, men, women and children of this sect, passed through Cherry Valley, Otsego Co.
The men and women were pressed through Sussex N. They call themselves the true followers of Christ. Their pretended prophet came from Canada a few months since, and is a man of austere habits; and a great fanatic.
It was used as a conference room by the officers of the church. After leaving the church the Commercial's representative called on a resident of the little village who remembered distinctly the first settlement in He informed us that at one time between 3, and 4, Mormons were in Kirtland and worshiped at the Temple.
Three years after the settlement, or in , the Temple was completed. A Mormon bank was established and did a rushing business. But little by little the church divided into factions and left, and no services had been held therein for two years.
There are now but two followers of the Mormon faith in Kirtland. The Temple is a great curiosity to tourists, and in the summer time it is well patronized. The structure is now the property of Joseph Smith, jr. Canton, Ohio, Tuesday, July 19, They were encased in a cotton bag, and Mr. Wells did not actually see them, but from their lack of weight he did not believe they were metal plates as Joe Smith alleged, but were slates.
He was greatly tempted to "smash" them; and if he had -- where would Mormonism have been today? Wells died in He was married there in and his first four children were born in Palmyra bewteen and In he joined with other freighters to form the American Express Company. In Wells Fargo separated its banking and express operations, and by American Express was an independent corporation. Wells was thus the co-founder of two of America's best known companies.
His business grew until it needed a horse and wagon. This, merged with others, became the American Express Co. Henry Wells married his first wife Sally Daggett in the little weather beaten house that stands opposite Stafford street on the north side of Main street. Cook reprinted a series of old articles from the Palmyra Courier-Journal, under the title of Palmyra and Vicinity, and on page he stated: On this lot was a house and blacksmith shop. Later Levi Daggett occupied both.
His daughter Sarah married Henry Wells, prominent in connection with the express business. According to an sermon delivered by the Rev. Horace Eaton, in Palmyra: This house was occupied by the father of Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, who came from Sharon Vt. Cincinnati, Monday, December 12, Your correspondent, familiar with this valley, which lies in the southern part of Washington county, Pa.
There, near the town of Ten Mile, in a comely farm house, neat without and tidy within, and surrounded in his declining years by kindred of the closest ties and the comforts of life, your correspondent found the object of his search, one Joseph Miller, sr.
Miller is now in the ninety-second year, a fresh, affable old gentleman, whose hand was extended to meet the writer as he introduced himself, and sat down to make known his mission.
Miller is an elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and a man of unimpeachable veracity. In answer to the question if he knew Rev. Solomon Spaulding, the author of the "Book of Mormon," he quickly turned toward the writer and his face brightened as his mind ran back to the events of the past, and he said, with considerable emphasis: Hamilton, a Presbyterian minister, now living in Steubenville, O.
Spaulding read it to him from his manuscript, it fixed itself upon his memory, and that he had never forgotten it. He said that about Mr. Spaulding came to Amity, a small village about five miles from his present home, where he kept a hotel. That Spaulding was in delicate health and he Miller often spent his evenings at his home. While there, upon several occasions, Mr. Spaulding would bring out a large roll of papers, and read select portions of their contents to amuse us of evenings.
He told me that he wrote it for a novel, and intended to have it published as a means of support for his family. He called it "The Lost Manuscript Found," and said that he wrote it to pass away the time when he was feeling unwell. Miller, "from what I know of Mr.
Spaulding's manuscript and the Book of Mormons, [sic] that Joseph Smith by some means got possession of the copy of that novel, and promptly made some changes in it, and issued it under the name by which it is known to-day.
Miller said that Spaulding was an enthusiastic archaeologist, and that he often indulged himself in the belief that the American continent was at one time peopled by a colony of ancient Israelites, and that his MS. Miller is the only man living at this time who was acquainted with Spaulding, at least, the only person who has any knowledge of the correct origin of the "Book of Mormon," or who ever heard it read from the lips of the author. He said to your correspondent, during his stay, that as he neared the grave, with but one breath between him and heaven, he hoped that last breath might carry a message that would prevent people from being led into Mormonism, that most seductive delusion of the devil.
Miller, "and I would not cast a shadow upon his memory, for it never was his intention to create a false religion by anything that he wrote. I attended him through his last illness, and when death called him from the earth, I, with my own hands, made the coffin that contains his sleeping ashes.
He was buried in the church yard of the village, and his grave remains unmarked, while the work of his idle hours, eighty years ago, has grown in the country he dearly loved until the eyes of the nation are turned with horror upon its magnitude.
The grave, as stated above, is unmarked, curiosity seekers having broken and carried away the small stone once erected. Hundreds of people from all over the country have visited the spot, and it is now proposed to erect a monument suitable to the memory of the deceased.
Cooper was once the co-editor of The Washington Advance Observer , and later a special correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette. He relocated from Washington Co. This interview article was only one of several in which Mr. Joseph Miller provided information over the years.
His first newspaper piece was published in , followed by another in These two accounts were followed by the interview conducted by Mr. Cooper for the Cincinnati Gazette. Joseph Miller provided a fourth account for publication in Feb. Finally, he wrote a fifth account, also in , but it was not published until Democrat Printing Company, According to Kiefer, "Mr.
Miller died 12 April , aged ninety-five years. One point made by Miller in this interview is perhaps incorrect. He states that is was never Spalding's "intention to create a false religion by anything that he wrote. Cleveland, Thursday, December 15, Cincinnati, Friday, January 27, To the Editor of the Cincinnati Gazette. Cooper, in writing from Washington County, Pa. I can not expect the space necessary to present our side of the case as we would desire, and as would be but justice to us.
The argument offered that certain passages in Mr. Spaulding's romance and the Book of Mormon are so strikingly similar that the latter must be a plagiarism on the former, has been used as effectively against the Bible. See "Bible in India.
Spaulding read his novel, and several have affirmed this, among them John Spaulding, Henry Lake, Oliver Smith, Arthur [sic] Cunningham and others, who claim to have been Mr. Spaulding's neighbors, and all that Mrs. McKinstry remembers, of the similiarity of the two works, is four names, just these and no more, and they all remember the same four -- Nephi, Lamenite, Moroni, and Mormon -- and these are precisely the ones of all others used in the lectures of the early elders of the Church.
Miller remembers particularly a passage on page that struck his mind so forcibly, as being identical with a passage in Spaulding's novel, but, he fails to give any intimation of what that passage related to or anything in it, so that those who have the book could judge of the accuracy of his memory. But I will not question the belief of the old gentleman that the Book of Mormon and Spaulding's romance are the same; he doubtless honestly believes that they are identical.
But I wish to offer a few reasons why I do not believe it. In the first place there is no proof whatever yet produced, that Joseph Smith ever saw the manuscript of Rev. He was but twenty-five years old when the Book of Mormon was printed, and he claimed to have his "Golden Bible," which was a well known fact in the neighborhood, as early as , or three years before, or when he was but twenty-two years old.
But let us trace the history of this "Lost Manuscript Found," as Mr. Miller calls it, or "The Manuscript Found," as Spaulding's daughter says it was designated. Without quoting the exact words, in order to save space, I will give its history as told by Mrs. McKinstry in Scribner's Monthly, August, Spaulding wrote it from to In he removed to Pittsburg, lived there two years; in removed to Amity, Washington County, Pa. Davison, Spaulding's widow, says that the manuscript then fell into her hands and "was preserved carefully" till Hurlburt got it in Then in her mother married a Mr.
Davison, of Hartwicks, N. McKinstry, of Monson, Mass. The document was in her possession then, as Mrs. McKinstry shows, for she says, "The old trunk. Jerome Clark, of Hartwicks, when she came to Monson, intending to send for it. In , a Mr. Hurlburt came to her house to get the "Manuscript Found," and after some hesitation, and with much reluctance, they gave him a letter to Mr.
Clark to open the trunk and deliver it to him. We afterward learned that he did receive it from Mr. Clark, at Hartwicks, but from that time we have never had it in our possession. And if Smith got hold of it for a season and copied it, "illiterate and lazy" as he may have been, why did not some of those parties who saw the book in and , right in the neighborhood where Spaulding wrote his romance, make an effort to get it, and compare the two, without waiting for Mr.
Hurlburt to do it, four years after? Well, Hurlburt got it, and gave it to, Mr. Howe, of Painesville, O. So, for aught that he personally knew, he did get the original genuine work, and it did not show any similarity to the Book of Mormon, and he did not do as he intended -- i. But, suppose that Jerome Clark palmed off some other of Spaulding's papers on Hurlburt, what has become of the "Manuscript Found?
McKinstry says Hurlburt did receive that very paper, but if she is mistaken, that "old trunk" ought to be hunted up, and perhaps it may be found yet. However, [is it] not likely that she was mistaken, and that Hurlburt got the right thing, and, when compared by Howe with the Book of Mormon, proved to be no more like it than chalk and cheese are alike, notwithstanding friend Miller's belief that Spaulding wrote the Book of Mormon[?
Miller thinks Joe Smith only "made some changes" in the manuscript and "issued it under the name by which it is known today. The truly historical and biographical form but one-third. The doctrinal part must have been written entirely by Smith, then, for it is far from being the doctrine of the Church of which Mr. Spaulding was a minister -- viz.: It would probably take offense if I claimed that the book taught its faith and order.
The "some changes" would, therefore, cover two-thirds of the book, and that much at least must have been original with Smith, leaving only the historical, biographical, and genealogical third to Mr. But the trouble then would be that to separate the doctrinal from the historical and other part would make the latter absolutely unintelligible. So interwoven are these various portions that to separate them would be impossible.
But grant that Smith merely changed the statement of doctrinal thought, which might be done by substituting a few words only here and there, and thus leave the body of the book as Spaulding's production, it would bring worse disgrace to his memory than anything yet said against Joseph Smith for this reason. In hundreds of places does the book represent angels from heaven speaking and revealing important truths, and of Jesus Christ Himself appearing here on this continent and teaching His disciples, like he did in Judea, and of organizing His Church, and His apostles teaching by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and it gives utterances of prophets, as the Spirit of God moved them, and fully a hundred pages are taken up with this style of writing, and the name of the Lord is used copiously.
Now if Spaulding wrote all that as a novel, placing Christ, and angels, and the Holy Spirit in his plot, making his characters speak in the name of the Lord, and of course taking that holy name in vain; making them pretend to reveal divine and awful truths; then would he be the most wicked blasphemer and heaven daring wretch that ever lived. And if Joseph Smith, or any other man, wrote the prophetical and doctrinal portion of that book, either as a novel or as a pretended series of revelations, such an one deserves the execration of the whole human race, and the severest judgments of the Almighty.
But the burden is put upon Spaulding's shoulders by his daughter's testimony, who said, in the article referred to, that it was believed to be her father's writings with but "slight alterations. He subsequently took it upon himself to refute the Spalding-Rigdon explanation for Book of Mormon authorship and wrote a number of letters and articles upon that subject. Elder Smith was mistaken, in his idea that Solomon Spalding was a Presbyterian "Reverend" at the time he was writing fictional stories in Ohio and Pennsylvania.
He was only briefly licensed as an evangelist in his youth, and there is no reason to believe that Spalding professed Christian religious tenets during his later years. As early as he was publicly criticizing "ignorant domineering priest[s]. Cincinnati, Ohio, Saturday, July 1, When Fuller wrote his Strictures on Sandemanianism, he was thought by many to have entered upon his work in order to save himself from the obloquy of being called a Sandemanian.
I do not know but what similar causes may have influenced the "very amiable Christian gentleman," whose modesty scarcely permits him to announce to the world the wonderful things that his erudite brain enabled him to bring to light. Campbell responsible for Mormonism? What do the premises say? The only ground upon which the learned gentleman can base his assertion, is the fact that Sidney Rigdon was a Mormon.
Rigdon was, undoubtedly, the real founder of "the most corrupt and odious system that has disgraced the nineteenth century. Beadle was not prejudiced in favor of the Disciples. In speaking of the causes which produced Mormonism, he said: One thing is evident, it was not Mr.
All his efforts were made against such a mockery of pure and undefiled religion.. But the premises show such a state of religion. Jerks, jumpings, howlings, barkings, lights, voices, dreams, etc. An experience void of these was considered worthless.
An experience such as related in the eighth chapter of Acts would not have been received as evidence of a genuine conversion in the associations of the Western Reserve in There and then the eunuch would have been required to show a powerful conversion, made manifest by contortions of the body, clapping of hands, leaping from the chariot and the enunciation of a direct communication from God to his own heart.
The people of the Reserve were taught that the word of God was a dead letter, and new revelations given to each individual , were necessary to conversion. New Testaments were sufficient to make a man wise unto salvation. The insufficiency of the Scriptures, and additional revelations were two of the orthodox planks that had been nailed onto Protestantism. Campbell and his co-adjutors desired to have the planks removed.
Because they expressed this desire, and because they were leading the people away from their vain superstitions to the simplicity of the truth, and because they said the so-called spiritual manifestations were the result of physical causes, and were not produced by the Holy Spirit, they were denounced as heretics, and accused of repudiating experimental religion, and denying the existence of the Holy Spirit. Keep in mind what was orthodox then.
Whoever had experienced "jerks," howlings, jumpings, barkings; whoever had seen a light or heard a voice; whoever had seen a vision or dreamed a dream, was safe. Campbell said these things were vain delusions. In , Mormonism made its appearance. It came with a new revelation; it came saying the Old and New Testaments were not sufficient; it came offering as evidence what was seen and heard in the revivals of the orthodox churches. The Mormons heard voices, saw lights, dreamed dreams, and they had the jerks; they jumped and muttered and barked; they laughed and they cried.
When those who had been taught that such things were evidences of true conversion to God, saw how abundant these evidences were among the Mormons, they were compelled to admit that the new religion must be from God.
From this class of orthodox Christians the great majority of the first converts to Mormonism were made. When Rigdon first openly received the messengers from Joe Smith, he pretended to discredit their statements.
He called on them for proofs of the truths of their book and mission. The sign appeared and he was convinced! The sign business was a great converting power among the Mormons. Some of their conversions are thus described: Many would fall upon the floor, where they would lie for a long time apparently lifeless. The fits usually came on during or after prayer meetings, which were held nearly every evening.
The young men and women were more particularly subject to this delirium. They would exhibit all the apish actions imaginable, making the most ridiculous grimaces, creeping upon their hands and feet, rolling upon the frozen ground. Concerning such evidences as this, Mr. He who expects visits from angels will find them as he who, in the age of witchcraft, found a witch in every unseemly old woman.
I doubt not but that the irreverences and levity in speaking of the things of God, which have been apparent in Sidney's public exhibitions for some time past, and which he has lately confessed, may yet be found to have been the cause of this abandonment to delusion. The Methodists, among whom it appeared so well to take, amongst whom it has recently so much prevailed, ought to be admonished against laying themselves open to such impressions in their swoonings, vociferous ejaculations, and notions about new visions and revelations of the Spirit.
An article upon its advent among the Disciples of Ohio will appear, in due course, in the Church Union. If we leave out of consideration every other question, and take up the popular idea of conversion, we have sufficient data to direct us to the fountains of Mormonism.
These same evidences were given as the first fruits of Mormonism. And yet, today, a doctor of divinity, a professor in a theological seminary, attempts to turn away the odium of Mormonism from the shoulders of his religious ancestors, and saddle it upon the only set of men, who, in the day of its birth, denounced all such signs and visions, and revelations, etc.
Orthodoxy demanded that evidences of conversion should be given in answer to prayer, and should consist of signs, etc. The Mormons adapted the same principle of conversion and signs, etc. They claimed the possession of the same evidences of conversion, as the most devout among the orthodox. This was an unanswerable argument to many who believed that the word of God was a dead letter, and that the Holy Spirit made direct communication to the sinner's heart.
Such was the testimony in its favor then. Campbell and the Disciples, who were then at least nominally Baptists, taught that such experiences were what men claimed them to be; and when they can show that Mr.
Campbell and the Disciples taught that the word of God was not sufficient without other revelations and signs, given in answer to prayer, in the work of conversion, they can show that they, equally with the rest, were responsible for "saddling upon the world the most corrupt and odious system that has disgraced the nineteenth century.
Thomas Clapp was born in Middlefield, Mass. He was the son of Orris Clapp and Pheobe Blish. Of their thirteen children Thomas was the ninth. The family removed to the wilds of Northern Ohio when he was less than six months old. He became a member of the Baptist church at the age of 21, being baptized by Elder Sidney Rigdon, who afterwards became a leader among the Mormons.
About a year after the conversion of Thomas Clapp, the Baptist church at Mentor was swept away from its moorings by the rising tide of the reformation which was urged by Thomas and Alexander Campbell.
This was in Thomas Clapp entered fully into the spirit of that movement, and took at that time a position in religious matters from which he never swerved to the day of his death. When Thomas Clapp was nearly 26 years old, in Nov.
Cleveland, Ohio, Monday, October 2, At the foot of Lake Michigan, a few miles outside the Straits of Mackinaw, lies a beautiful island. In winter it is the battleground of blizzards, and the blasts which come howling down from the wilderness of Manitoba, making weird music among the tapering pines which seem to have been driven unto it to hold it in place, render it anything but a desirable habitation.
But in summer, when nature has adorned its slopes and headlands with a coat of green, and the cool breezes play across its surface, few more delightful spots can be found. The great number of bare-tailed, broad-toothed, four footed little engineers which used to sun themselves on the beach, build mud houses and dams, or disport themselves in the clear water which surround it gave to it the name of Beaver Island.
Every sailor who has made the trip from Cleveland to Chicago is familiar with the place, and though there are few mariners on the lakes who know its history, any man who sailed twenty-five years ago can tell many stories connected with it. He received a passably good education in his native town, and after leaving school became a lawyer. About the time Joe Smith discovered the plates upon which he claimed was written a revelation from God, young Strang was pouring over Blackstone.
He soon saw Smith and heard him talk, the result being that he was converted and admitted into the church. Shortly after this Smith turned his face toward the setting sun and came West. He settled at Kirtland, Ohio, and organized a Mormon community. He built a temple, and in the course of time had succeeded in collecting about him quite a band of followers. After a short residence in Ohio Smith pulled up stakes, and taking most of his disciples with him, went to Independence, Mo.
Wishing to extend his power, Smith delegated Strang to go to Wisconsin and organize a branch church, which the latter did with great success. Profiting by the example of his great leader, Strang proceeded to search for a "revelation.
This record had been buried there and it was destined that some great prophet should find it. Joe Smith and Brigham Young looked upon Strang's "find" as an imposition, and were inclined to discredit the story. About the time Strang was reading the "revelation," Smith was killed by a mob at Nauvoo, Illinois. The death of Smith created a vacancy which Strang was anxious to fill, so he fixed up a forged letter purporting to have been written by Smith, in which the leader said he had a revelation from God to the effect that he was soon to die, and that Strang was to be the leader of the church.
They did not believe the story, and Strang was promptly kicked out of camp. He returned to Wisconsin and redoubled his efforts to build up a church of his own. Beaver Island was then inhabited by a prosperous colony of about one thousand rough and hardy fishermen.
Strang saw a chance, if he could overpower the fishermen, of establishing himself in a place where no one would, for a time at least, molest them. He therefore sent two or three embassies over to the island on a prospecting tour. They were treated very cooly by the fishermen, but they discovered that the soil was rich in resources, and upon making a report to Strang, he decided to possess the coveted island if possible.
He accordingly sent over a number of men and set them to work establishing a colony. They had a hard fight, but finally secured a foothold, and the entire Mormon band was transplanted to the island. Work was then begun in earnest, and in a short time a town sprang up on Beaver Harbor, and was named St. James, after the King. Strang started a newspaper, of which he was the editor, and it was said to have been the best conducted journal in the northwest.
Once established the Mormons inaugurated a bitter and never-ending warfare against the gentile fishermen, and step by step the latter were driven to the extreme end of the island. The encounters which took place were not without bloodshed, but as there were no laws except those made by King James, there was little fear of punishment for any crime committed against a gentile. These people were characterized as strictly honest in their dealings with one another, but they followed a different code of morals with the outside world.
It was even said that they would not scruple at piracy in order to enrich their coffers. None of the crew were ever seen again, and it is probable they were murdered by the plumderers. Although polygamy was not an essential part of the religion of Strang's church, he himself had five wives, and several others had two or three.
In addition to his fanatical religious belief, Strang was an ardent sympathizer with the seccession cause. This probably had something to do with arousing public sentiment against him. At any rate one day in or the United States steamer Michigan dropped into Beaver Harbor and sent ashore a detachment of men who arrested the king on a charge of treason, the specific reasons for which being that he was conducting a government in open defiance of the laws of the United States.
He was taken on board the steamer, accompanied by seventy of his best men, who voluntarily agreed to go with their leader, and was taken to Detroit for trial.
The Mormons employed several prominent lawyers to defend Strang, but the prisoner insisted upon making the argument to the jury. He then went back to St. James and resumed his sway, but it was not of long duration.
His rules regarding the conduct of the people were very strict. The use of intoxicating liquors and tobacco was prohibited under heavy penalties, and many minor offenses were punished by whipping. A short time after his return from Detroit a United States army surgeon, who had been discharged from the service, applied for, and was granted admission to the community. The surgeon rose rapidly in the church and soon became an elder.
He had unfortunately formed the habit of drinking in the army, and the old appetite returning, he indulged it, and became beastly intoxicated. So gross a violation of the rules would not be tolerated even in an elder, and the transgressor was immediately expelled from the community. The wounds did not result in death immediately, but after a short illness Strang died. His first wife, whom he had frequently tried to shake off, clung to him in his last sickness, and nursed him with great devition, saying that she could forgive him for his polygamous notions, and that she believed it to be her duty to cheer his last hours.
In the demise of this remarkable man the community received its death blow, for the faithful could not decide upon a leader. The property was divided, and the communistic idea was abandoned. Norton, whose place of business is at No. I was bound from Cleveland to Milwaukee, and one afternoon just after leaving the straits the weather began to look very threatening, and I decided to anchor for the night.
Beaver Harbor was the nearest point, so I ran the vessel in there. I had just entered the harbor as I saw a boat put off from the shore. It contained a man and a woman, who, as they came alongside, implored me for God's sake to take them on board and give them protection, as they were in danger of being killed by the Mormon king. I knew this king was a desperate man, but I did not like to leave these people at his mercy without trying to save them. They were therefore helped on board, and as we preferred the storm to an encounter with the Mormon band, the Sheppard was headed out to sea again, and by morning was fifty miles from the island.
After the man's excitement had abated, he told the following story: He held out great inducements to me, and painted a glowing picture of the advantages I would gain by emigrating to the West. His oily tongue and bland manner completely deceived me, and I decided to go with him. I had no idea what kind of a place we were going to until we arrived. I very soon found out, however. To-day the king sent me to the other side of the island to do some work.
I suppose I returned sooner than he anticipated, for when I reached home I found him talking to my wife, who was weeping bitterly. It made me very angry, and I told him I had had a revelation that I must give him a whipping, which I proceeded to do.
My offense was considered a very heinous one and the king threatened both my wife and me with death, but we escaped and reached the boat with which we came out to your vessel. You may rest assured I never entered Beaver Harbor again on board the schooner Sheppard, but I have been there since on other vessels.
The above article reads more like a fictionalized movie script's depiction of "Prophet" Strang's career, than the product of any serious attempt at historical reporting.
The writer's evident disinterest in historical accuracy becomes so blatant at one point in his text, that he presents the Mormon leader who died in as being "arrested For a reprint of Captain C. Norton's account see also the Boston Daily Globe of Nov. By the chooner L. Sheppard was under the command of a Capt. Calloway -- it sailed the waters of the Great lakes at least as late as Norton" from that period has yet been identified -- although in the vessel's captian was listed as "Norton" -- possibly it was C.
Cincinnati, Ohio, Saturday, December 2, Whitsitt's coming revelations concerning Mormonism as the offspring of Campbellism. It was to be a terrible revelation. One of the editors of the Herald professed to be horror-stricken at the thought of the unearthing of damaging facts which this historical explorer had dug up and was about to exhibit to the astonished gaze of an ignorant world, and another Baptist editor solemnly declared that if what was said could be proved, Alexander Campbell and his coadjutors were guilty of "saddling upon the world the most corrupt and odious system that has disgraced the nineteenth century.
Whitsitt, as the result of his wonderful "scientific investigations," in the shape of a lecture on "Mormon Theology" before the Baptist Pastor's Conference in Louisville, Ky. Being published in the Western Recorder, in Prof.
Whitsitt's own city, a copy of which was addressed to us in what we take to be Prof. We give it in full on another page. We do not promise to publish reports of succeeding lectures, for if this is a fair specimen of the course, our space can be better filled than with such pretentious nothingness. After all the bluster and parade in heralding this great show, the exhibition will be found to be quite disappointing.
Parturient montes nascetur ridiculous mus. If the reader cannot understand this, we need only say that he is likely to get as much solid good out of it without understanding it, as he can get out of the report of Prof. Whitsitt's lecture, with the best understanding of it that he can reach. Whitsitt knows to be offensive to the people to whom he applies it, further than to say that if his gentlemanly instincts are not sufficiently refined to protect him from the employment of such names, especially in dealing with a people whom he professes to respect, he is perhaps more to be pitied than blamed.
The stream in not expected to rise above its source. We know to whom he refers, and we pass the vulgarity without further notice.
Whatever amount of historical truth there is in the assertion -- and that there is considerable truth in it, it required not the "scientific" skill and research of Prof. Whitsitt to give information to the public -- the puzzle is, to know how this can "bear hard upon the Campbellites," or how it can be proved that Mormonism "sprung from Campbellism.
Whitsitt has given to this subject, we beg to know how "Campbellism" is to be held responsible for a system of theology "founded" and "developed" by men who had forsaken its faith, its principles, and its fellowship! The Apostle Paul warned the Ephesians that from among themselves men would arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them; of the apostates of the apostolic period, it was said that "many shall follow their pernicious ways.
What a pity this very "scientific" historian had not been there, to busy himself in explorations among the unwritten traditions of the apostolic age, that he might have enlightened some Baptist Pastors' Conference on the dreadful "literalism" of the apostles' preaching and teaching, and warned them against the evil tendencies of the gospel of the grace of God in view of the dreadful errors that had "sprung" from it!
The proposition of the lecturer being granted as probably true, and "Mormon theology" being shown to be a mischievous compound of truth and error, fact and fiction, sense and nonsense, and to have resulted, in a moral point of view, disastrously, the legitimate lesson to be drawn from it would be -- the danger of apostatizing from the faith, principles and fellowship of the "Campbellites.
Either the proposition is a gross blunder, or the proof submitted and the conclusions drawn are such as a "sober and scientific" reasoner ought to be ashamed of. To prove that Mormon theology was "founded" and "developed" by "apostate Campbellites," our lecturer proceeds to prove that Mormon theology teaches some of the very same things that A. Campbell and his coadjutors taught!
How that proof is to be hitched on to that proposition, is a mystery which none but a marvelously "scientific" reasoner can ever know. Apostates from a faith or a party, may take with them some of the ideas, or principles, or usages of the system they renounce. The apostates of apostolic times did this. Paul charges them with preaching "another gospel," yet he immediately adds "which is not another, but there are some that pervert the gospel of Christ.
Can they, by any amount of "scientific" treatment of the facts, be justly regarded as the offspring of the gospel? Can their wicked perversions and their moral corruptions be fathered on that gospel which they perverted? Whitsitt's attempt to fasten the disgrace of Mormonism on the teaching of Alexander Campbell is disgraceful to him alike as a "scientific" historian and as a "sober" logician, and if the Pastors of the Baptist Conference at Louisville can swallow such reasoning, they must be on the borders of starvation, ready to devour whatever is offered to them.
The truth is, that the apostates of primitive times had much more success than these apostates from our ranks, for it does not appear that "many" from among us "followed their pernicious ways. Not only were their conquests few from among us, but our preachers promptly, boldly and successfully withstood them at the start, and soon put an end to their mischievous influence and proselyting career. And the Campbells, too. And the principal adherents of the Campbells came from the Baptists.
Sidney Rigdon could tell of no such inroads on our ranks as could the Campbells of inroads on the Baptist ranks. Of course then, Baptistism is the mother of Campbellism -- the latter sprung from the former, and has always retained much that is taught and practiced by the Baptists.
Baptistism is not only the mother of Campbellism, but the grandmother of Mormonism, and the grandchild, in some respects, striking features of its grandmother, which don't belong to the mother at all. Let us quote again from this report: This purpose of "convincing Jews and Gentiles that Jesus is the Christ," which is announced on the title-page, Prof.
Whitsitt declares to be the key of the Book of Mormon and he thinks that this manifest and expressed aim of the book shows that it had a Campbellite origin.
Now listen to this, from a book older a good deal than the Book of Mormon" Many other signs truly did Jesus which are not written in this book, but these are written that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye might have life in his name John xx Does this "manifest and expressed aim of the book" show that John's gospel "had a Campbellite origin?
And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them and three Sabbath days reasoned with them out of the Scriptures, [opening] and alleging that Christ must needs have suffered, and risen again from the dead, and that this Jesus which I preach unto you is the Christ Acts xvii Does this show that Paul's sermon "had a Campbellite origin" Prof.
The editor of the Western Recorder, in defending Prof. Whitsitt, and presumably writing with that gentleman's approval, says in substance -- for we have not the paper by us and cannot give the exact language -- that no other body but the Disciples uses this confession of faith; they all use some other confession.
That is to say, no other religious body of the present day adheres to apostolic teaching in this particular -- the Disciples and the Mormons are the only people who, in this respect, stand where the apostolic churches stood! But let us hear from a historian whose "sober and scientific investigation" Prof. Whitsitt will not, we presume, fail to honor: The existence and first development of the Christian Church rests on an historical foundation -- on the acknowledgment of the fact that Jesus was the Messiah -- not in a certain system of ideas.
Hence, at first, all those who acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah separated from the mass of the Jewish people, and formed themselves into a distinct community. In the coming time it became apparent who were genuine, and who were false disciples; but all who acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah were baptized without fuller or longer instruction, such as in later times has preceded baptism.
There is only one article of faith which formed the peculiar mark of the Christian profession, and from this point believers were led to a clearer and perfect knowledge of the whole contents of the Christian faith, by the continued enlightenment of the Holy Spirit Hence baptism at this period, in its peculiar Christian meaning, referred to this one article of faith, which constituted the essence of Christianity, as baptism into Jesus, into the name of Jesus; it was the holy rite with which sealed the connection with Jesus as the Messiah -- Neander's History of the Planting and Training of the Christian Church, Book I.
And, if this confession of faith had an apostolic origin, how is the conclusion to be avoided that Campbellism and Mormonism have alike "sprung" from apostolic teaching and practice? And how does this go to prove that the authors of Mormon theology were "apostate Campbellites? We quote again from the Recorder's report of Prof. The fact that immersion is prescribed as the exclusive mode of baptism betrays a Campbellite origin of the Book of Mormon; also the fact that infant baptism is forbidden.
Smith, who was a Methodist in sympathy, could not have introduced these features. They must have been derived from Rigdon. The reader will not fail to note the admirably "scientific" method of reasoning here set forth. Smith was a Methodist in sympathy, and therefore "could not" have introduced immersion and forbidden infant baptism. Yet it is well known that thousands of Methodists believe in immersion, and have insisted on being immersed, and that thousands of Methodists do not have their children sprinkled.
If Smith had been a sincere and worthy Methodist, there is nothing in that fact to show that he "could not" have given these features to the Mormon theology. But to say that an impostor like Smith, capable of fathering all the lies about the golden plates and their translation, the visits of angels, etc.
We think it quite likely that these features of the Mormon system were "derived from Rigdon," as well as pretty much all else that enters into the religious teaching of the Mormons ; and for this opinion we are not in the slightest degree indebted to the laborious and scientific researches of Prof. It is based on facts long since made public, and accessible to all who desire to know them.
Mormonism probably "derived from Rigdon," its immersion and its prohibition of infant baptism. They may, therefore, be fathered on him, so far as that system is concerned. But from whom did Rigdon derive them? Rigdon was a Baptist. He brought these ideas and principles with him when he came from the Baptists to us, and took them with him when he went away from us. The lecturer falls into the pit which he digged for the poor Campbellites.
Rigdon derived immersion and opposition to infant baptism from the Baptists; and, so far as these features are concerned, the Book of Mormon has, according to the lecturer's method of reasoning, a Baptist origin. Yet, if any of our preachers were to charge on such grounds, that Mormonism is the offspring of Baptistism, we should conclude that there was a screw loose somewhere in his mental gearing; and if any of our professors in our Bible schools, were to teach such nonsense to their students, we should set them down as blind guides.
Rigdon carried with him into Mormonism ideas of God and Christ, and the atonement, and the resurrection, and many other things that are recognized as true by all the orthodox denominations, and we presume he derived them from orthodox sources. Is Mormonism therefore, the offspring of orthodoxy?
We may yet show that there are some features of Mormonism in which it is allied with Baptistism and with the popular orthodoxy of the time of its origin, in which it is directly opposed to the uniform teaching and practices of the "Campbellites. Whitsitt's lecture, must await another opportunity. But before we close, we call attention to a matter which deeply concerns Prof. We called his attention to it once before, and sent him a marked copy of the paper; but we are not aware the he made any reply to it.
We now repeat it. We have it on respectable authority that within the last two or three years, Prof. Whitsitt, if he did not originate, very heartily seconded, a proposal from a Baptist source, for a conference between leading Baptists and Disciples, to consider the question of union between these two peoples. We are informed that he went so far as to suggest the methods to be pursued to prepare the way for such a consummation. We are further informed that he was quite enthusiastic in behalf of such a proceeding.
Now, while we have no intention to question his motives, we have a right to call attention to reported facts, which, if true, call for explanation from him. Are the foregoing statements true? We published them once, and neither Prof. Whitsitt nor any Baptist paper, so far as we know, ever denied them. Indeed, to the extent of our knowledge, the papers that paraded Prof. Whitsitt's purpose to prove the Campbellite origin of Mormonism were as silent as the grave respecting the statement we published, and a very solemn stillness on the whole question of Prof.
We now renew the request for an answer to our question. If these statements are true, how can Prof. Whitsitt consistently teach that Campbellism and Mormonism are parent and child?
Does he seek to convert Baptists to Mormon theology and Mormon practices? How could he lend his influence to, and even become enthusiastic over, a proposal to unite the Baptists and us, if he honestly regards our teachings as the legitimate fountain of Mormonism?
To reconcile his enthusiasm over a proposed attempt at union with his present effort to cover us with the foul disgrace of Mormonism, we confess is to us an impossible task. We are not disposed to condemn him without a hearing, But we frankly tell him that continued silence on this point will be taken as presumptive evidence of his inability to reconcile his former professions with his present teaching, and the people will draw their own conclusions.
Cleveland, Friday, December 15, No one can furnish anything more entertaining in this connection than Mr. Fellows said to a Herald reporter yesterday that he was living in Kirtland in , and from that time to or They claimed to have discovered the plates of the new Bible, the Book of Mormon, and by strong will power, energetic force and persistency succeeded in convincing many that they were divinely called to the services of mankind.
Elder Rigdon, a Disciple preacher at Mantua, was one of the first converts to this new religion. It wedged its way into this strong New England orthodox community until many of its leaders of society and thought were within the Mormon fold. Hyde had been working in the same shop with Mr. Fellows before the Mormon invasion, and there was nothing to distinguish him beyond the ordinary man. A prominent man named Billings and others named Barlow, Morley, Dr.
Burk, Dwight and Harpin Riggs and others rallied around Joe Smith and his chosen disciples and soon there rose the Mormon temple, now so famous and already described in the Herald. Fellows say he remembers well the departure of the Mormons to the far West. His sister [Abigail Fellows] and her husband, John M. Burk, were among the faithful followers of the Prophet who left behind them home and friends to seek in the far off wilderness that freedom of thought and action, that opportunity for religious growth, which they had been taught to believe were denied them here.
It was a sad parting and there was much excitement in Kirtland at the leave-taking. It was a cold day. Fellows thinks the year was He says it is not his recollection that the community of Kirtland were at all hostile to the Mormons, but they went away to establish themselves so far beyond the limits of civilization as to insure them against contamination with the wicked world and New England thought.
He was about ten years old. Fellows says it was years after their departure before he heard from them. They were effectively swallowed up by the wilderness. He prizes this highly, yet permitted a Herald reporter to read it.
There we got on a flatboat and went to Cincinnati, where we took the steamer Portsmouth for Louisville. There we had our baggage dragged around the falls, when we reembarked on the steamer Dove for St. Louis, reaching there sometime in October.
The cholera was raging at St. Louis, and many of the colonists were taken down with the cholera and died. Here we bought ox teams and wagons, and started for Independence, Mo. She was buried in the St. She had a good, respectable burial, and a number of strangers went with us to the grave.
She died November 8th, Her sickness and death left us two weeks behind the company, but they traveled slowly, and we overtook them. We arrived in Independence the last of November. Father bought a farm sometime in January, and we went to housekeeping, Widow Bunnel and her own daughters keeping house for us.
We remained there until the night the stars fell, November 2d, when we started across the Missouri into Clay county, where we camped out in the open air, keeping warm by large cottonwood fires. A large number of people were with us. We remained in Clay county until December, , when we moved to the far West, and settled in Caldwell county, where father built the Eagle Hotel. In we made another remove and left the State of Missouri. We than settled in the town of Nauvoo, Illinois. Here we remained until September 20th, , when we crossed the Mississippi River en route for Council Bluffs.
We left my my step-mother, she was Mrs. Bunnel, at Farmington, Iowa, where she took sick. Father and I went on to Council Bluffs with the rest and remained there until April, , when men and three women started for somewhere, just where we did not know, but we brought up in the valley of the great Salt Lake.
This was July 24, The country was very uninviting I can assure. On August 16th, in company with a number of pioneers and battalion men, we started for the Bluffs, 1, miles distant. We reached Salt Lake without many accidents October 16th. My wife's brother was run over by a wagon. We buried him in a sand hill. I hurriedly made him a cottonwood box for a coffin. She died on the Platt River, ten miles above the head of Grand Island, and was buried without a coffin or box of any kind.
The above article preserves a valuable historical source relating to early Mormonism -- even though it does contain a few obvious errors. Joseph Smith was not among the initial four Mormon missionaries who preached in the Kirtland area in , nor was Orson's Hyde's first name spelled Horton. Isaac Fellows himself is mentioned in passing in the Jan. Cincinnati, Ohio, Saturday, December 16, We give, instead, the following letter, sent by Bro.
Power to the Western Recorder. Whether it will be allowed to appear in that paper remains to be seen. It will appear be seen that it sustains the statements my by us relative to Prof. Whitsitt's desire to submit a proposition from the Baptist side of the house, looking to a union of Baptists with a people whose teaching, he now claims, gave birth to the theology and peculiar morality of Mormonism!
Whether the Professor is in living sympathy with Mormonism, that he was so earnest to bring the Baptists into association with the pestiferous doctrine that gave birth to it; or whether, since the death of President Garfield, the prize he sought has lost its glittering charm, we must leave our readers to decide for themselves.
We know they will be interested in reading Bro. Power's communication to the Recorder: Power's lengthy letter was written to deride the idea of a Baptist-Disciple union. It says very little about Whitsitt's views on Mormon origins and so is not reproduced here. Cincinnati, Ohio, Saturday, December 23, Power's letter, which appeared in our columns, last week, and follows it with the following comments, ostensibly from the editor of that paper: We trust he came by it honestly Have you been denied of loan from Bank?
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Barrister Jude Esiaka, re Mekon how dare they! Wilson Scott, re Kerry Packer, wilson. Barrister James Ubana, J. Rivera Ulysses, pniuulcx candid. Prince M Nkomo, Zimbabwe, pmnkomo compaqnet. Arnon Avishai a merchant in Isreal? Abraham Coulibaly from Ghana, abrahamcouliba yahoo. Daniel Cole, Corporate Securities Co.
Benedith Morgan benedithmorgan2 yahoo. Dish Khushab, kushdish gmail. Akhmad Muhamad, Bahrain, Oesophageal cancer, akhmud1 lycos. Sam Chungu, samchungu1 swissmail. Edozie Stanley, Union Bank Plc, edoziestanley yahoo. Angela Musungu, Liberia , angelamusungu sify. Adams Jamil the son of Mr. Mabeli Jamil of Zimbabwe, jamilad yahoo. Jonah Gustav, Lagos, Nigeria. Bay bank, Madrid Spain, Dr. Mok, Hang Seng Bank Ltd. Aadel Akgaal Bastaan, wangmok yahoo. Dr Ibrahim Martins, ibmartins tsamail.
Sen Charles, Senator Charles Idee, sencharles msn. Johnson Azu, johnsonazu77 myway. Bank, Hong Kong, Swift Code: Mary Kobe, the wife of late Brigadier - Gen. Daniel Ebenezer Koku Esq. Hamza Gambo, Louis Wagner, lwagner hotmail.
Olivier Koffi Atlantic Bank Plc. Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Adam Bengat, olikoff yahoo. Hilda Danlopa, hdanlopa netscape. Steve Igho, Cape Town , steveigho zwallet. Martha Komana Hamenya, Blk. Barrister Caleb Apata LL. Francis Oliseh, francisoliseh yahoo.
Desmond Scott, Orient Bank Nig. Jennifer Wilson, lawadamsss netscape. Danniel Kajeta, dankajeta netscape. Barrister Jones Obi, barristerjonesobi40 yahoo. Wilton Cole, wcole yahoo. Marin Debah, Albert Tedy, ecobankinternationalplc rock. Sir Randal Hicks Esq. Victor Abdusalam abd4salam msn. Michael Crowder and "ghastly car accident in Port-Harcourt".
Dele Roberts, Central Bank of Nigeria, centralbanknigeria msn. Kimaeva Lioudmila, msklioud mail. Ann Williamson, 23 Les Caches, St. Barrister Peter Anderson, barranderson mailstart.
Barrister Dorn Toho, barristerdorntohooo yahoo. West Africa, re Chief Morgan Mohamed. Ibrahim Umar, olomberghert msn. Abaya Corazo, a merchant in Dubai. Don Brown, Bank of Africa-Benin: Barrister Peter Anderson, barpeteranderson yahoo.
Rachael Stewart, 23 Les Caches, St. Olasupo Olafare sup verizonmail. Kevin Kamara, re Chief Abraham P. Earl Spencer, earllaw7 netscape. Lampard Larry, re Stella Obasanjo, lampardlarry yahoo. Gladys Ander Kolingba, gkolingba yahoo. Prince Favour Moore from sierria Loene? Bray Fieldick, Nigeria, brayfieldick universia.
Barrister Ray Dell, Amsterdam the Netherlands, barristerdell20 yahoo. South-West Merchannt-Bank [ mailto: Paul Jeff Carpenter, Suite 37, Chip stead? Sam Okkoh, samokkoh yahoo. Mr azeez, azeezyamini yahoo. Barrister Charles Bala, barristerbala uku. Dr Jacob Paka, Kate Dada, kate. Owusu Dannel, re oil bunkering and modalities, okofo4everreel yahoo.
Building,19 Raynam Road, Hammersmith, w-6, London. Dr Johnson Motene, johnsonza hotmail. Daniel Jones, Knight Quarter,14 St. Sunwest Trust Bank Plc. For Trustees Hart wig Chambers, London, ga walla. Louisa Wilson, "in a hospital in the U. Andrew Chike, International Trust Bank, andychike mail. Princess Ann Uyalor Ms? Hong Kong Construction Bank in Johannesburg, lee-david hotmail. Pualina Gomez , "an American merchant Liveing? Barrister Philip Adams, Benin, philipadams myway.
Barrister Smith Martin, Harmony law Chamber, re car accident along west london express road, Security Finance Firm , smithmartinchambers smithmartinchambers.
Johnson Akums, Akums Consulting Inc. Fatima Keita, Liberia, fatimabox1 yahoo. Barrister Oscar Edward, re Allan Jingle, edwardoscar myway. Steve Lucas, stevestevelucas yahoo. Universal Security Services Ltd.
Jeffrey Rice, 65 St. Karl Ona, Oceanic Trust Securities, oceanictrustsecurities1 yahoo. Cape Town, South Africa. Sandrine Mpondo, 42 year old woman from Sierra Loene? Box GP, Accra, Ghana. Steve Summers, Trade Bank Plc. Abuja, Badagry, Benin republic, Sydney Tyani. Patrick Mankou, Republic Du Benin, patrickmankou virgilio. Sherry Lee Reynolds, sherryleereynolds yahoo. Kate Oshodi, re Dr. Mahamadu Saraki, Chairman F. Peter Morgan, Champion Finance. William Holsen, re Alaska Airlines Flight , williamholsen yahoo.
Johnson Akums, "Akums Consulting Inc: Maria Key, 23 Les Caches , St. Barrister John Abachi, barristerjohnabachi yahoo. Florence Micheal, florencemichealm hotmail. Dr andolos Tony, drandolostony12 yahoo. Nelson Zuma, nelsonzumachamber yahoo. Snaga, Kruger Gold Company. Citi Exchange Trust Finance Comapny? Daniel Awus kone from Cote d' Ivoire. Carlos Beto, carlosbeto aemail4u. Rutudjo fikateo rutudjo netscape. Ken Mehlman, Ernest C. James Anigbogu, re ghastly car crash along Abuja Expressway.
Ben Howard, portland street, sutton-in-ashfield, nottinghan shire? Stanley Maurice, Richard Wales. EC4R 2SB, barrister collins and rosemary chukwu. Bunu Kadir, re Chevron Petroleum. David Johnson, davidjpersonal hotmail. Stanley Osadebe, union Bank Nig. Doreen Kabila, Republic of Congo. Maxwell Chukwu Chamber's Lagos Nigeria, maxwellchukwu1 box. Benjamin Mosola, "merchant in Dubai". Barrister Ovel Kokou, ovelkokou25 msn.
Solomon Mbokke, re "one of the prime banks here in South Africa". Kenneth Ramza "a merchant in Dubai" - but with a Spanish mail address, ramza1 ozu. Cliff Benson, Dubai, cliben yahoo. Gilroy Carter, postbus , BA Amsterdam. Makelele Thambo, makelelethambo sify. Takura Makoni re Holden Agency, Zimbabwe. Williams, accountant with Beagon Nigeria ltd.
Jenifer Allian, Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire. Otunba balogun, Martins Whit. John Elmac, a lawyer, re Christian Eich. Prince Amanda, princeamanda yahoo. Barrister Chris Walker, Nigeria. Steven Thomas from Sierra Leone. Mathew really re Charles Taylor, Liberia. Clem Uzu, Michael Uba. Justice Otunba Gbenga Daniels, Nigeria: In order to transfer out Thirty million three hundred thousand dollars from our Bank here in Nigeria Africa".
Box Victoria Island, Lagos - Nigeria. Paul Raymond, Republique de Mauritius. Yuri Lagutin an Attorney to Mr. Alex Smith re Dr. Jonathan Mann, Swissair accident in Mac Joseph Mgbe Lagos - Nigeria. Vincent Oronto orontovincent1 virgilio. Harold Coker, Africa international bank plc, Lagos. Monica soney, first wife of Engineer Solomon soney, of Bulawayo-Zimbabwe. Mulan Qin, re Bank of China, mulanqin yahoo.
Martin George, Trade Bank Nig. O Box kt, kotobabi, Ghana. Noble Concerns Associates, Jonathan C. Ayo Mensah, Custom Officer, Ghana. Barrister Timothy Sado, timsadoassociates yahoo. Europe Shiping Agency, spanish shipping, spanishshipping madrid. Barrister David Johnson, orbitalexpresscourierservice yahoo. Amina Mohammed, re General Sanni Abacha. Daniel Kgomosu, danielkgomosu executivemail. Ofor, Uco bank of India, Nigeria branch. Dean Smith, re Hartwig Chambers again! Markus Wolfgang, Hartwig Chambers, London.
David Banda the son of Dr. Mpenza Banda Democratic Republic of Congo. E, and Zimbabwe, frankterryford5 hotmail. More likely living comfortably on benefits in a European capital.
Ivan Kobina, First Bank of Africa. Barrister David Moore, davidmoorechambers uku. Martin Maes, Ivory Coast. Jane Mupesa, Mashonaland, Muzaraban, Zimbabwe. Barrister Williams White, Lagos. Steve Okon, steve3okon o2. Prince Douglas Blair, "Barclays Bank". Hassan Ahmed, hahmedng yahoo. Joseph, re Khodorkovsky, Yukos oil, the Kremlin and Menatep bank. Victoria Island, Lagos, writepaul68 alexandria.
Mrs Marbel John from Kuwait. Albert Galut, Eco Bank in west Africa. Bassy Gambo, amalgamated bank of south africa Absa. Kalu , re car accident along sagbama express road. Barrister Kalu E Kalu of Nigeria. Jennifer Wilson jenniferwilson yahoo. Henry Bassey, bank in Lagos-Nigeria.
Robbinson kuku, African Development bank, London lesion? Sese-seko, re Republic of Congo and Swiss bank. Dr Paul Mbizala K. Maclord Ubah, a solicitor, Nigeria, re Groove wood finance Trust company. Olsom Berghart, a personal treasurer to Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Eucheria Titus, re Christain? Activities, Rue 32 Cocody, Abidjan. Morrison Johnson, drmorrison uku. Barrister Joseph Young, young deacons. Sarah Welsh, welshessarahh walla. Richard Dewar, re Jonas Savimbi. Musa Adams, Dubai, musa walla.
Jeff Vilagazi, "of one of leading banks in South Africa". Mrs Louisa Ejercitor Estrada, "I hope to trust you as a God fearing person who will not sit on this money when you claim it. Fred Mfana, re Air France concord plane crash. Elizbeth Rowland, Malaysia, born again Christian.
James Gaje, Inland Bank Plc. Robert columbus, Ghana, Zimbabwe. Taylor Brown, Moronvia, Liberia. Kelvin Mudzuri, re Philip Nicholas Nielson, fatal motor accident.
Miss Melissa Walusimbi, Abidjan. Keita Suntho, re Tsunami. Hakim Khalid, Cuba, Egyptian nationality. Mrs Zebun Rahmeed , widow to late Mr. Colonel George Ibeh of theGhananian armed forces. Belinda Smith, re cocoa fortune, Ivory Coast. Barrister George Martyns, re warren Jenkins, car crash victim. Victor ola, "chief auditor of a reputable bank here in Nigeria".
Al Ahli Usman, usman56 excite. Henrique Sessenou the son of late Sir Benha Sessenou, the renowned Zimbabwean wine and cattle farmer. MOORE - another plane crash victim. Prince George Sanoussi, Guinea-Conakry. Elvis Eyadema, republique du Togo. Barr Musa Yakubu, re Mark Ishimoto, tragic auto accident! Elizabeth kant, re alluvial gold Dust, Mali. Anthony kone, Royal family in Ghana. Joseph Gogo, Benin Rep. Mrs Maureen Clarks from Netherlands, re Dr. William Taylor, son of Mr Charles Tayor?
Will Finchley, staff of International Privaten? Nzanga fred Mobutu, fredo yahoo. Malissa Pointer, "in a hospital in Kenya". Baldwin Onuigbo, Diamond Bank Nigeria. Dr Albert Saliou, Dakar,Senegal.
Spilman another ghastly accident. Walter Smith, Corporate Securities Co. Adede anthony re Central Bank of Nigeria. Nigeria, re Larry Jardine. Mohammed Bakary, re Hubert Sorg. Yukos Oil plc, Don santos. Barrister Tony Sunday, re. Dan Dully Faith, re Mrs. Alhaji Mohammed Abacha, Nigeria. Princess Mimi Fayed W.
Bolkiah, Barrister Thompson Mbeki, Borneo. John NGO, the stepson of Mr. Terry ford of Zimbabwe. Julius Onyesor, re Kelvin Winter. Mercy Kume, a tragic cancer victim re Late Mr. Daniel ugbadia, re Dr. John Weaver account, Union Bank Plc.
Mandla Zika, a personal financial Advicer sic to Mr. Ben Adams re Mark Branch a very rich gold merchant, died in ghastly auto crash in Nigeria. Jonathan Cobi, Petroleum Resources, Nigeria. Mary Maria Stevens, Charles I. United Kingdom, re Mr. Anthony Johnson, Liberia, Anna Holmes.
Juliet Oniga, South Africa, Botswana. Gerald Welsh, London, Barr. Sandy Kawata, re Eshed. Mercy Kume, wife of late Mr Anthony Kume, "a wealthy Zimbabwean farmer who was brutally murdered in a land dispute together with his oversea partner Mr.
Abdul Faruk, Kabul, Afghanistan. Anthony Kouakou, zimbebew sic re Martin Olds. Isaac Ademola, Lagos, Nigeria. Dele Johnson, re Liberia. Barrister Alan Patrick, re. Prince Yomi Williams, Liberia. Henry Ford, Gorie Farm in Zimbabwe.
Larry Moore, a merchant in Dubai, in the U. Kabiru Ibrahim, Nigeria Civil Aviation. Philips m Christ sic , lawyerphilips. Arvelo Lori Doryce another "accident victim". Erick, a native of Cape Town in South Africa. Soludo, Central Bank of Nigeria. Senator victor Kassim Oyofo, Nigeria. Apoi West, re Capt. Lumka Yengeni re Tony Yengeni.
Chris Joe, Togo, Africa. Mrs Luisa Ejercito Estrada. Angela V Richard, from cote d' ivoire. Rita Dan Kabo, Zimbabwe. Jacob Abebe, Standard Chartered Bank. Patrick Molefe, Cape Town. Dr martins Umeh, Nigeria.
Rodney Chesson, rchesson lawyer. Prince James ugo from the First Bank of Nigeria. Hajia Mariam Abacha, Nigeria. Aruna Guei, Ivory Coast. Bolkiah, the eldest son of Prince Jeffrey Bolkiah former finance minister of Brunei, the tiny oil-rich sultanate on the Gulf Island of Borneo.
Mary Avril Cummings, Sierra Leone. Louis Coker Taylor, Liberia. Desmond Kugama, re Zimbabwe. George Stephen, Attorney re. Ademola Williams, De Rosenberg Consulting. Barr Jones Kono, re Shell, Ghana. Swe Ne Win, a native of Bagan in Myanmar? Steven Bright, Nigeria, re Robin T.
Gregson died in a ghastly accident! Posted by Henry Kroll at 6: Lou Ann Warren November 27, at 8: Eliene Chean February 14, at 7: Kelsey May 10, at Nicole Ellison April 21, at Unknown September 8, at 1: Gino September 13, at 3: Prosper Loans May 3, at 3: Steve Mogilevski March 12, at Henry Kroll May 6, at 9: Haseeb Mukhtar May 26, at 2: Gexton May 29, at 5: Manny38 June 20, at 7: Patang July 4, at 3: Priscila Martins September 16, at 9: Mahmood Saeed January 27, at 7: Ramanath Nayak February 12, at Jenny Luz Jenotan March 7, at Osman Masood April 21, at 9: Me August 3, at 4:
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